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Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In Latin, these forms evolved into est and sōns, respectively (vowels get lengthened before -ns). The latter is where we get forms like absēns > "absent" and ...


I guess it would be something like hypothesis continui. Alternatively, it could also be rendered as hypothesis de continuo. Note that noun-noun compounds like "continuum hypothesis" or "string theory" are possible in some languages (e.g., English, Mandarin Chinese, A(merican) S(ign) L(anguage), Japanese, etc). In contrast, Latin is not to be classified into ...


In medieval Latin there were neologisms such as ens. The link also says that the original form was sons with the classical meaning "guilty".


Among the soldiers, (the man) has griped that (his) brother matched the treachery to him. Something like that.


Here's a partial answer: 1. prosit Prosit (lit. may it be useful) came to mind (as I commented), but I couldn't easily find it attested. The fact that it is used in languages other than German suggests a former widespread culture of using prosit in toasts that could perfectly come from a time when Latin was the cultured lingua franca. But it could as well ...


From your expanded question, it sounds as though your main issue isn't really sibi but the fact that you aren't correctly construing fratrem as the accusative subject of the infinitive in the indirect statement. apud milites: prepositional phrase telling where the subject performs the main verbal idea questus (= questus est): main verbal idea fratrem ...

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