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14

I have found three ways of referring to the age of wine, the first of which is the most common and simplest: An adjective such as anniculus, bimus etc. quadrimum Sabina, o Thaliarche, merum diota fetch the four-year old wine from the Sabine jar, o Thaliarchus Horace, Odes, 1.9 ponite turaque bimi cum patera meri set down incense and a ...


12

Classical Latin Roman Republic According to the Guide Romain Antique, by Jean Dautry, Georges Hacquard and Olivier Maisani, from the second century BC the Romans had 3 meals a day only one of which was plentiful : the cena. The jentaculum was the breakfast: some bread and cheese after waking up; The prandium was a simple collation (merenda), eaten on the ...


11

Cato Maior devotes a large subsection of De Agri Cultura to wine. You can read the entire text here, and as can be expected, he sticks to very simple verbs: general: making: vinum Graecum sic facito actual wine making: plucking grapes: Hoc vinum [= has uvas] seorsum legito trampling grapes: In orculam calcato pressing grapes: Manu conprimito acina ...


11

The current communis opinio is both Latin words oleum and oliva were borrowed from Greek, which, in its turn, are of Pre-Greek origin (e.g. Beekes 2009/2016, Ernout & Meillet 2001); cf. Miller 2014 "there are cultural and phonological reasons for thinking Latin borrowed it from Greek" (p. 31). Miller 2014 writes that "Since Attic-Ionic lost /w/ ...


10

Here's a summary of the article "Meals" written by Professor Gutsfeld (Université de Lorraine) for Der Neue Pauly - if you're serious about Latin or classical studies, you should already know what it is. Unfortunately, it is behind a paywall, so many of us mostly likely will never access this fantastic multivolume reference. Early Republic: ientaculum ...


9

I think that both index and tabula ciborum work as calques but I can’t find any evidence for either in classical sources. Indeed, I can’t find any information about whether there even were menus at tabernae/popinae/cauponae. My understanding is that the foods were simply on display. I also can’t find any evidence for tabella cibariorum but I did find a ...


8

There is a direct quote for this situation in the Satyricon, where Petronius just uses annus in the genitive plural: Statim allatae sunt amphorae vitreae diligenter gypsatae, quarum in cervicibus pittacia erant affixa cum hoc titulo: FALERNVM OPIMIANVM ANNORVM CENTVM. Dum titulos perlegimus, complosit Trimalchio manus et: "Eheu, inquit, ergo diutius vivit ...


8

Pliny NH XV has palati gratia. It's not exactly al dente, of course, but at least it indicates that taste was referred to the palate, rather than the teeth: oleum ipsum sale vindicatur a pinguitudinis vitio. cortice oleae conciso odorem accipit. medicatio alias ut vino; palati gratia nulla est nec tam numerosa differentia: tribus ut plurimum bonitatibus ...


7

Why not globus or globulus? Each is a word that basically means a spherical mass. The former has a wide range of uses, and would be a reasonable choice, but for 'meat ball' I should prefer the diminutive.


7

I think you are right that sanus more correctly describes a healthy state, whereas saluber/salubris seems to be preferred to describe those things which bestow health. Some examples: Climate: ex saluberrimis Galliae et Hispaniae after the very healthy [climate]* of Gaul and Spain Caesar, Civil War, III.2 *climate is implied because the contrast ...


6

Here are two data points: There are no results on The Latin Library for cepeo. There are no results on The Perseus Project for cepeo.


6

The original word is not fond-/fund-, but sphondylium, from the Greek σφονδύλιον. The original pronunciation would have been "sp-," but as the Greek phi softened, it turned into an /f/, and the /s/ in /sf-/ is masked by the /f/, which makes it sound redundant. Back to σφονδύλιον, which is derived from σφόνδυλος, the normal Greek word for 'vertebra.' From ...


5

Both my English-Latin Dictionaries suggest Laganum (plural Lagana). Smith: laganun ex ovo frictum [explic. pancake (made with egg) fried.] Ainsworth: laganum. Like "Crêpe" it is a borrowed word: λάγανον, τό, A a thin broad cake, of meal and oil, Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott [1940], A cookery site adds: It's entirely possible ...


5

I can't actually find any reference to pastillus meaning a type of bread. The OLD defines it as a medical term meaning "a pastille (either swallowed or applied as a medicament)". I have done a fairly exhaustive (and exhausting - Pliny mentions pastillus 60 times!) word search only to find it always means a pastille or lozenge, typically involving the ...


5

Savoury spreads: An earlier question on pesto gave two invented answers. Another is Gentleman's Relish, an anchovy flavoured spread that used the mock Latin description 'Patum Peperium,' (also the title of its website) hence patum, and patulum. And yet another invented name could have been added from tapenade, the olive paste from SE France whose root is ...


5

pŏpīna is the one, borrowed from Oscan or Umbrian, and cognate with (native Latin) coquina. Indeed, a Packhum search gives no results for thermopolium and 54 results (59 matches) for popina - note that, still, thermopolium can be found e.g. in Plautus and Petronius. Note that caupona and taberna were also common, but while L&S lists them as synonyms, ...


4

My dictionary (which I did not have access to when asking the question) also suggests laganum, and that word seems indeed very suitable. I have therefore accepted Hugh's answer. One can indeed refer to crêperies as small bakeries, but it may not be suitable if clearer connection to crêpes is called for. My grammar offers three ways to derive nouns from ...


4

To add to the previous suggestions, the first word that came to my mind was almus, -a, -um, which Lewis and Short glosses as: nourishing, affording nourishment, cherishing (poet. epithet of Ceres, Venus, and other patron deities of the earth, of light, day, wine, etc.; cf. Bentl. ad Hor. S. 2, 4, 13).—Hence, genial, restoring, reviving, kind, propitious, ...


4

What you remember from years ago is probably as good a description as you will find. Dictionaries usually agree that a pastillus was a small, round object baked from flour, which some describe as a "roll". Two classical references commonly appear: Horace, Satires 1. 2. 27, pastillos Rufus olet, and Martial, 1. 88 (which is not quoted literally in any of my ...


4

According to Quicherat’s French-English dictionary, you can say malum aureum or aurantium for translating orange. An interesting discussion about the Citrus Aurantium can be found in this book (in French). According to the author, the oranges were called mala aurea or mala Hesperidum by the Ancients and aurentia during the Middle Age. Examples: Quod ...


4

I had thought that the adjective (h)olitorius, from the noun (h)olus, might work, since the meaning is 'of or concerned with vegetables.' But after looking at the attestations in the dictionaries and going through the search results on PHI, it doesn't appear that it was ever (at least in the extant literature, of course) used to describe food. It's mostly ...


4

Does Latin have words for the various types of diets, e.g., "vegetarian," "vegan," etc.? Not really. There is certainly plenty of discussion of diets in Latin literature, whether for health or religious purposes, or just for anthropological interest. But there was no single name for any particular type of diet. A good example of this is vegetarianism. ...


4

Apparently yes. Although I haven't found any explicitly Roman source, all evidence point to fungi being considered plants at their time, and into the XX century. This is what I have found so far: The author of De Plantis I. 4. 30 considered them plants. The book is attributed to Aristotle (in which case the original is Greek, and the translator unknown, ...


4

According to OLD, coquina means 'The art of cookery.' It's (ultimately) the origin of, e.g., Italian cucina, which means both 'kitchen' and 'cuisine.' Update: I also see that, for culina, which has 'kitchen' as its primary meaning, OLD gives 'Provision of food or the food provided, board, fare' as definition 2 (a) (emphasis added). So, given that the word ...


4

A good verb for spreading seems to be pandere. From "spread" one can derive "spreadable", and such derivations are widely attested in classical Latin: facilis < facere fragilis < frangere utilis < uti An adjective can always be substantivized to mean the thing the verb is applied to. For this specific class of adjectives, two prominent examples ...


3

I believe that there's no difference between specifying the ages of people, and those of anything else. The verb I would choose here is conficio: Hoc vinum est XL annos confectum.


3

Apicius regularly gives the word mollis for "cooked until soft", such as in 3.2: polypodium in tepidam mittes. ubi mollierit, rades, et minutum cum pipere et cumino trito in patinam ferventem mittes et uteris. Parboil polypody root so as to soften them, cut them into small pieces, season with ground pepper and cumin, arrange in a baking dish, finish ...


3

Cuisine is just a fancy word for prepared food. Why not simply cibus Nepalanus?


3

The word pistatio already exists; OLD defines it as 'the action of ramming down,' which sounds quite unappetizing. In the entry for pistare that is linked to in the question, the attestation provides one possibility: herba pistata. Alternatively, while researching a comment and an answer for another food-related question, I came across this passage from ...


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