For almost twenty years, the de facto standard for Latin technology vocabulary has been the Vocabula computatralia. You can and should use and peruse it for all types of programming-related vocabulary, but I'll reproduce the definitions you are looking for below.
For program, we can just take the word from which the English is derived:
program 1. subst. ...
The verb lucubrare means (OLD definition 1) 'To work by lamplight (i.e. late at night), "burn the midnight oil."' For example, Pliny uses this verb in letter 3.5 to talk about his uncle's work/study habits:
sed erat acre ingenium, incredibile stadium, summa vigilantia. lucubrare Vulcanalibus incipiebat non auspicandi causa sed studendi statim a nocte ...
You could use retexo, literally "unweave, unravel", but also used to mean the below:
B. Trop., to break up, cancel, annul, reverse
It depends a little bit on the context, though, what the best translation would be. Other candidates are restituo, resolvo, abrogo, rescindo, induco, evacuo, exinanio, eludo, libero...
Adjectives with a similar meaning ...
Seneca is your man. In Ep 122 he uses the word lychnobius: one who lives by lamplight.
I'll quote the passage in full, because it's so great.
Pedonem Albinovanum narrantem audieramus (erat
autem fabulator elegantissimus) habitasse se supra domum Sex. Papini. Is erat ex hac turba lucifugarum. 'Audio' inquit 'circa horam tertiam noctis flagellorum sonum. ...
Perhaps graeculus, often translated as Greekling?
It refers to Greeks who held positions of some import in Roman society due to their education and higher learning yet were considered too Greek to actually be considered proper Romans and, therefore, part of Roman society. It was also used to mock those Romans who exhibited a taste for Greek language, ...
The Latin term for this is magister bibendi or arbiter bibendi, or "master of drinking." Here's some context:
After a roll of the dice, a magister bibendi was chosen. By appointing a certain ratio of water to wine to be mixed in the cups, this so-called "master of the drinking" then decided the strength of the wine to be drunk. (Latin for Dummies)
From my googling so far, it appears that jade did not reach Ancient Rome, and classical Latin has no word for it. Possibly Pliny mentioned it in the Naturalis Historia, but he mentioned a number of green stones and it's not clear that any of them are jade. So, you're going to have to settle for Latin from a later time.
Normally a good first place to look ...
If you have a look at Cicero's letters, many of them do not have any valediction at all. In a pair of letters exchanged between Q. Metellus and Cicero (Cic. Fam. 5.1-5.2), the two men simply stop and end the letter without any closing.
However, there were common ways of providing a common valediction. One of the most common you can see at the end of Cicero'...
Clipeus was originally a round, metal shield. It is fairly common.
Scutum was originally a long, oval wooden shield with iron fittings and covered with leather, used by soldiers. It is also used for a shield in general. It is about as common as clipeus.
Both words were also used metaphorically for a defence or protection in general.
The word to use is probably macellum. Lewis & Short offers:
macellum, i (macellus, i, m., Mart. 10, 96, 9), n. root μαχ-; cf. Gr. μάχομαι, to fight; cf. μάχαιρα, μάχη, and mactāre; prop. butcher's stall, shambles; hence, transf., meat-market, provision-market (where flesh, fish, and vegetables were sold). Lit.: venio ad macellum, rogito pisces, Plaut. ...
As brianpck mentioned, the English suffix "-able" is borrowed from Latin. The rules for applying it in Latin are more transparent than the English alteration between "-able" and "-ible". EDIT: And are actually even easier, now that I think about it.
First, choose your stem.
If the verb has a fourth principal part (supine) ending in -tus, remove the -tus ...
Maybe simpler than you think! The following are extracts from Smith's Latin-English Dictionary (1871), under the head "point":
II. Fig., the sting or telling feature of an epigram, etc.:aculeus (a sting): an epigram requires to have a p. to it, *epigramma quasi aculeos quosdam in se habere oportet; cf. Cic. Br. 9, extr.; his own epigrams have often very ...
Frigidus / cold can be used metaphorically to describe any kind of speech that seems flat and lifeless, whether it was an attempt at humour or not. But here we see it being applied specifically to bad jokes:
Haec aut frigida sunt, aut tum salsa, cum aliud est exspectatum.
These [jokes] either fall flat, or are funny only when
something else was ...
The word 'vocabulary' is derived from vocabulum, meaning a word specific to some particular thing, as distinct from verbum, which is the word in general, and dictum, the spoken word.
Cicero (de Oratore 3.XXXI.125) clearly uses copia verborum to mean 'vocabulary':
rerum copia verborum copiam gignit.
There are three major holidays that come to mind when considering "eve": Christmas Eve, New Year's Eve, and Halloween (All Hallows' Eve). When one looks up those holidays in the Morgan and Silva Furman University Lexicon, you get the following:
Christmas Eve = pervigilium Natalis Christi
New Year's Eve = perviligium anni novi
Halloween = ...
Latin allows the use of "Quid?" in a similar way.
See, for instance, Cicero in the First Cataline Oration:
Quid? cum te Praeneste Kalendis ipsis Novembribus occupaturum nocturno impetu esse confideres, sensistine illam coloniam meo iussu meis praesidiis, custodiis, vigiliis esse munitam?
Translation by Yonge:
What? when you made sure that you would ...
I found two examples (from 1667 and 1709) that uses the first portmanteau that came to my mind: omnimisericors.
...laudo, adoro, & revereor te, Domine DEUS, Omnipotens, Omnimisericors, qui aquarum fontes creasti, etc...
This is obviously not standard.
The much more common way of saying "most merciful" in liturgical Latin is clementissimus.
Besides machinator, I found two words for engineer in classical Latin that are primarily directed towards the devising of buildings and fortifications.
aedificator A builder, derived from aedes (house, temple)
munitor An engineer of fortifications, derived from moenia (walls).
An architectus, besides being an architect, could also represent someone who ...
I suggest the word nocticola, which literally means "night-dweller".
The entry in Lewis and Short describes it as "fond of the night" and gives one use example.
Unfortunately the word seems to be rare and I could not find any classical attestations.
However, it is a very natural derivative — just like Ovid's monticola — so I have no doubt the ...
It seems that corollarium was used in this sense. Lewis and Short describe the original meaning as "money paid for a garland of flowers", but elsewhere it is described more like money put in a garland "and so a free gift" (editor's note on Lucilius, Satires, 12.464).
However, here Seneca uses it in the sense of tipping for services rendered:
My dictionary offers four options for "striped":
Virgatus "striped" (is used for striped clothing, at least in
poetry and post-classically)
Virgulatus "striped" (seems to be very similar to virgatus but less
Both of these are from virga "twig", which is also used to mean "stripe" in clothing (II C).
Ostreatus (striped or ridged like an oyster ...
The term jade refers to two separate types of metamorphic rock, according to its Wikipedia entry.
Both forms, jadeite and nephrite, share the same etymology, which is detailed in the entry for Nephrite:
The name nephrite is derived from lapis nephriticus, which in turn is derived from Greek λίθος νεφρίτίκος; νεφρός λίθος, which means 'kidney stone' and ...
Lewis & Short has sceletus (second declension masculine), which must be etymologically related to the English "sceleton".
It is described as eviscerata forma diri cadaveris, "a disemboweled form of a dreadful corpse".
The corresponding Greek word σκελετός means "dried body" or "mummy".
You can find this word used in Apuleius, Apologia, sections 61 and ...
Indeed, it means [he] eats; it is a contracted form. It's not very common, nor extremely rare. Lewis & Short even call it "very frequent", which I think is an exaggeration:
The contr. forms es, est, estis, etc., are very freq. in prose and poetry: "est", Vergil, Aeneid 4, 66; 5, 683; Horace, Satires 2, 2, 57
There have already been a few answers, but I have always liked the Morgan and Silva Furman University Lexicon, so here are the terms it gives for "cafe":
thermopolium, -i, n.
This corroborates Ben Kovitz's answer, and provides several other options. The last few options ...
If you want a single word meaning "high school" specifically, I think the closest would be lycēum. I think the word schŏla "school" would also be appropriate in reference to a high school.
As you note, the concept of a "high school" seems to be modern, so there is probably no exact classical equivalent. Joonas mentioned the word lycēum in chat, and I think ...
For natural monsters, perhaps belua:
Belua immanis, crocodillus ille qui in Nilo gignitur …
That colossal monster, the crocodile born in the Nile …
Apuleius, Apologia, 8
Belua is often used for sea-monster (belua ponti) and it's sometimes ambiguous whether this means something like a whale (a natural 'monster') or something more supernatural. See ...
As for the Gregorian calendar, the source is indeed (Ecclesiastical) Latin:
Deinde, ne in posterum a XII Kalendas Aprilis æquinoctium recedat, statuimus bissextum quarto quoque anno (uti mos est) continuari debere, præterquam in centesimis annis; qui, quamvis bissextiles antea semper fuerint, qualem etiam esse volumus annum MDC, post eum tamen qui ...
One definition (10.c in Oxford Latin dictionary) of petere is 'to seek the hand of (a woman) in marriage; also ~ere in coniugium or matrimonium.' For example, in Livy, Ab urbe condita 40.4.3, we find:
Theoxena multis petentibus aspernata nuptias est.
Although many were seeking her hand, Theoxena rejected marriage.
The noun for 'suitor' or 'wooer' is procus....