21

There are indeed a few examples of such words from ancient texts, but they are very rare. They are still formed from the supine stem, meaning that the original dental consonant (d or t) is replaced with s, to which -trix or -trum is then appended. The Perseus Project provides a search tool for its dictionaries (in particular, Lewis & Short) which allows ...


16

I have another entry for this exhibit that answers your question with a resounding yes. Enter Plautus, in the Menaechmi, with three verbs derived from proper names in his prologue: Atque hoc poetae faciunt in comoediis: omnis res gestas esse Athenis autumant, quo illud vobis graecum videatur magis; ego nusquam dicam nisi ubi factum dicitur. ...


13

In a recent paper (included in The Latin of the Grammarians), I have made the point that Latin grammarians, unlike their Greek predecessors, did not expressly stress the uninflectional nature of adverbs, and this may be due to the fact that they observed some sort of declension in some types of adverbs (not only those derived of adjectives -doctus > docte-, ...


13

According to Miller (2006: 76, 78), the endings -men and -mentum form a deverbal (with one exception) noun with the semantics of means, instrument or result of action of the verb. Relevant quotations are §3.4 -men [...] ‘means, instrument, result’ While -men is formally and functionally related to -mentum (LG i.§326), the latter will be treated ...


12

Unfortunately, it seems that people have tried for centuries to answer this question, with limited success or at least limited consistency. For example: In his 1841 Dictionary of Latin Synonymes, Lewis Ramshorn indicates that fourth-declension words derived from the supine "designate permanent conditions," while third-declention words in -tio and -sio ...


12

There are at least some cases in which this can be done, with different shades of meaning. graecisso (-izo), āre, v. n., = Γραικίζω, to imitate the Greeks, to adopt a Grecian manner or tone: atque adeo hoc argumentum graecissat; tamen Non atticissat; verum sicelissat, Plaut. Men. prol. 7; v. Ritschl ad h. l.: graecizat, Consent. 1063 P. atticisso, ...


12

In general, the -osus ending indicates plenty. Lacrimosa isn't just "teary-eyed," but weepy. Same with nivosa. Niveus is often used with mountains to describe the snow-topped peaks, and from the quality of snow (i.e. whiteness), it is used to describe things in English we'd describe as "snow-white" - teeth, milk, togas, fleece (as in the old nursery rhyme). ...


10

I found a few other examples from a search on Perseus of Lewis and Short (I looked for words ending in "llula", "llulus" and "llulum"): arcellula < arcella < arca a very little box, Diom. p. 313 P. lamellula < lamella < lamina a small plate of metal: “glebulas emi, lamellulas paravi,” Petr. 57, 6. asellulus < asellus < asinus a ...


9

I think abdomunculum would be the most regular diminutive of abdomen. But it seems a bit difficult to me to give a clear answer because the rules about "proper" diminutive suffixes are often based on the form and gender of the original noun, and I know of no existing diminutives formed on nouns with precisely the same morphological form and gender as abdomen,...


8

According to Mensa's About Us page, the name is taken from Latin mensa, which means "table": What does "Mensa" mean? The word "Mensa" means "table" in Latin. Mensa is a round-table society, where race, color, creed, national origin, age, politics, educational or social background are irrelevant. This is further corroborated by the fact that the logo ...


8

According to De Vaan's Etymological Dictionary, these two words are not related. Here are his notes on mēns: PIt. *mnti-. PIE *mn-ti- [f.] 'thought, mind'. IE cognates: Skt. mati- [f.] 'thought, mind', Av. *maiti-, Lith. mintis 'thought, idea' So Proto-Italic and Proto-Indo-European take this mnti form, which has a number of Indo-European ...


8

As far as I can see, the Roman grammarians did not consider the adverbial -e to be a case ending. On the other hand, from the standpoint of historical linguistics most Latin adverbs are indeed fossilised case forms of adjectives. The “adverbial -e” is in fact of two-fold origin. i-stem adjectives like facilis use the accusative singular neuter as an adverb (...


8

Assuming we're in a codified state (from the tags), there are two primary ways. The first is use the present participle as a substantive. E.g. Cic. Div. 68.141 (from G-L § 437): Nihil est magnum somnianti Nothing is great to a dreamer (= to one dreaming) Be careful, though, because in the ablative singular the ending is an e instead of an i when it'...


8

A word search confirms that -olus is used instead of -ulus after a vowel. A Perseus search for words ending in -olus reveals (among a few false positives, like malevolus) that every diminutive form follows a vowel. A similar search for -[vowel]ulus, such as -iulus, only returns false positives. This is confirmed in Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar: [...


8

The supine is, in fact, the remnant of a fourth-declension nominal form, a verbal noun which stood for the action itself. The Plautine comedies still record an intermediate stage of this syntactical use. For example, we have accusative with ire, as in ire obsonatum "to go shopping" or ire venatum "to go hunting". On the other hand, redire takes the ablative,...


8

Remember than infinitives are “typically frozen case-forms” of verbal nouns (Fortson 2010: 107; see also Weiss 2009: 445). So, in several IE branches (Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian and Italic), there is a “specific infinitive formation often called the supine that is solely used with verbs of motion to indicate purpose” (Fortson 2010: 108). In Latin, it’s also ...


8

Latin doesn't need any changes at all. Since there are no definite articles, there's no need for anything but using the adjective substantively. The only requirement is following normal grammar rules on case endings. So, you could easily say both vir bonus and just bonus for "the good man." Same with participles, one of the most memorably lines from Livy is ...


8

I can think of many ways of going about this, but for such an unapologetically modern idea I think the best approach may be to observe how other related modern languages have solved this problem and extrapolate how a similar transformation might work. Spanish: googlear Portuguese: googlar Italian: googlare French, though, seems to be a hold-out: I have ...


8

Weiss cites, besides alumnus, femina (from a root meaning 'give suck'), calumnia (derived from *kalwo-mno-, from the root of calvor 'deceive'), and possibly also columna and the divine name Vortumnus (if related to verto 'turn', though it may rather be Etruscan). These are not Greek loans but native formations; I don't know when precisely they were formed, ...


7

I don’t know how far you want to stretch your definition of classical Latin, but Christianizo is used by Tertullian, and Judaizo in the Vulgata.


7

I don't have anything to say about this particular case, but the phenomenon itself is common. Any adjective can be substantivized. For example rubrum (from ruber, "red") can mean "the color red" or "a red thing". Translating such nouns depends heavily on context. As with any word, a substantivized adjective can acquire a meaning different from the original ...


7

It's not something I've seen often, but it indeed exists. The Theodosian code has Graecitas: Habeat igitur audītōrium speciāliter nostrum in hīs prīmum, quōs Rōmānae ēloquentiae doctrīna commendat, ōrātōrēs quidem trēs numerō, decem vērō grammaticōs; in hīs etiam, quī fācundiā graecitātis pollēre nōscuntur, quīnque numerō sint sofistae et grammaticī aequē ...


7

It's more accurate to ask why the Δ changes to Ζ than vice versa. Historically Ζεύς comes from a pre-Greek form *Dyeus, and just like in English we sometimes hear a "dy" combination merge into a "j" sound (i.e., [dj]) -> [dʒ]), the same thing happened in Greek, so that the initial consonant was originally pronounced something like [dʒ] (with subsequent ...


7

You seem to be missing the four part in the verb's dictionary entry: plectō, plectere, plexī, plexus. The agent noun is derived from the perfect participle stem, which for this verb is plex-. This stem is obtained by removing -us from the participle listed in most dictionaries. To this stem you add -or, so the noun you are after is plexor. (This kind of ...


7

Esse is a wonderfully common and useful verb, but also a somewhat defective one: it's missing various forms that other verbs have. Some of these missing forms were stolen from unrelated verbs, like the whole perfect system, taken from an older verb "to become". Others remained as gaps all through the Classical period. For example, esse has no present ...


6

The use of “positive” and “negative” as opposites is surprisingly modern. It seems to have originated (or at least been popularised) in the context of modern (i.e., 17th-century) mathematics with the distinction of positive and negative numbers. “Positive” numbers are numbers that you can posit, put on the table, observe as objective reality. “Negative” ...


6

A noun can be turned into a verb in Latin. But since both nouns and verbs have endings — quite incompatible ones one might add — an adjective cannot work as a verb as such. Instead, slight modifications are needed. In other words, verbs can be derived from nouns. In English nouns and verbs can look alike, and the derivation need not do anything ...


6

We can see how miles, -itis was adapted in milito, militare, and I seem to recall that corinthio, -are was "to work in Corinthian brass", so the short answer would be "yes". I think that, with a bit of imagination, you could conduct a simple search to find or verify other examples. There are certainly expressions for verb, recorded in some of the best ...


6

Gary Miller, in Latin Suffixal Derivatives in English and Their Indo-European Ancestry says that there is no direct relation between nouns formed from verbs with -ura and the similar future active participles. Formally, this suffix seems to be an adjectival *-ro- (fem. *-reh2) extension of nominal *-t(e/o)u-.... While -tura bears a close resemblance to ...


6

I think that the straight answer to the title question is 'No'. The supine is not exactly the most frequently found verbal form. The accusative form, as far as I know, is used only to indicate the objective of the main action after verbs of motion, and the ablative (the only other case found, though it is sometimes described as dative) only to qualify an ...


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