15

I would go further than Draconis's answer and say that we can be pretty certain that these diphthongs were indeed diphthongs in Homer's time. Here are some additional arguments: The Homeric poems took shape over centuries so there was likely some amount of temporal and other variation in the pronunciation of "Homeric Greek". But that process ...


14

No, there are plenty of ancient Greek words that have μπ and ντ in there somewhere. Two common words off the top of my head are ἀντί and πέμπω, thoroughly attested throughout ancient Greek. If you want to see all the ancient Greek words that merely start with ἀντ-, you can start here and scroll through many scores of entries. What you won't see, though, are ...


12

It's the other way around, actually: Latin lost this -s, and Greek retained it! In older Latin, and fossilized phrases like pater familiās "father of the household", you see the genitive singular in -ās. The standard explanation I've seen for this change is influence from the second declension (-us -ī). The second declension in Latin originally had ...


12

Accusative of respect: 'He's old/an old man with respect to his hair(s)' – i.e., his hair is that of an old man. Draconis has alluded to this in the other answer, but it's worth making explicit that τὰς φρένας in the last line is the same sort of accusative (whatever name one calls it by): 'He's young in respect to his mind/heart' – i.e., he's young at heart....


11

To add on a bit to cnread's (completely valid) answer: this is a form that's also called the "accusative of body parts" or the "Greek accusative" (since it wasn't common in Latin until Greek-influenced writers started imitating it—even though Greek has a whole bunch of other accusative constructions). It usually specifies a body part that ...


11

Koiné Greek & earlier lacked initial <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> although these strings are commonplace word-internally. There are however a small number of Modern Greek words beginning <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> that are inherited from Koiné Greek or earlier Originally, the letters <β>, <δ>, & <γ> were used to ...


10

C M Weimer is completely correct, but to add on a bit: The reason ΜΠ and ΝΤ are used for /b/ and /d/ nowadays is because, historically, the voiced stops Β Δ Γ turned into fricatives, and then later the unvoiced stops Π Τ Κ got voiced after nasals. When Greek-speakers heard /b/ in words like Turkish bakkal, the closest equivalent in their language was the ...


10

Whether a relative pronoun is ‘needed’ depends, in part, on how the participles ἔχων and ἐξηραμμένην are functioning. ἐξηραμμένην (withered) is functioning as a verbal adjective, modifying τὴν χεῖρα (the hand). In English, we can say “the hand was withered”, "the hand that was withered", or simply “the withered hand”. So, the first thing we can ...


10

"Is this just a phonetic thing in this word, rather than a semantic one?" Yep. In fact, as Smyth says, αἰδώς is the only such "-οσ- stem" word in Attic. (In Homer you will also find ἠώς "dawn", which in Attic declines as an "Attic declension" noun, on which see below). So it might as well be considered irregular. The ...


9

As you mention, this is a reference to the scholia (i.e. line-by-line commentary) on Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound for a given line of the play. Using the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, I found the full reference, which is actually to line 966 (not 969). In this part of the play, Promethetus tells Hermes: Προμηθεύς: τῆς σῆς λατρείας τὴν ἐμὴν δυσπραξίαν, σαφῶς ...


9

You have it backwards. The sigma is original. From Sihler 263.7: Gen.sg. PIE *-es, *-os, *-s are all attested forms of the gen.sg. marker and all three would yield much the same results in the historically attested IE languages when added to the stem *-eH2-. Most authorities assume a full grade form, and G ending-accented forms in *-ᾱς, Att.-Ion. *-ης, are ...


9

As Asteroides has said, the "classical" pronunciation (from the fifth century BCE or thereabouts) is reconstructed as /ɛː/, a longer version of the vowel in English "red". However, there are quite a lot of different ways to pronounce Ancient Greek—and unlike with Latin, the "reconstructed classical" version hasn't caught on as ...


9

@TKR is right about the specific case of αἰδώς and mentioned the Attic declension, but there's more to say: there is a good number of Greek nouns ending in -ως even outside the Attic declension, and the question of whether it's a meaningful suffix for forming words out of other words there is worth asking. Going through Wiktionary's list of Greek nouns and ...


8

αὔρας is accusative plural: "the sea drinks the breezes." (And in Anacreon's poetic dialect, I think that he would have the genitive singular as -ης. -ας after ρ is Attic.)


8

It is indeed ἡμι- 'half' + ὅλος 'whole', but there's a third component, -ιος, which forms adjectives, usually but not exclusively out of nouns, indicating the possession of a characteristic of the prototype word (as in e.g. ἀρχή 'beginning' → ἀρχαῖος 'primeval', θάλασσα 'sea' → θαλάσσιος 'maritime', Λέσβος 'Lesbos' → Λέσβιος 'Lesbian', &c.), as ἡμιόλιος ...


8

Sources that say Ancient Greek eta was pronounced like the vowel in English "delay" or "hair" are only providing a loose approximation of the vowel. The standard reconstruction is [ɛː], a front mid-low long monophthong. There is no evidence that I know of for η ever being pronounced as a diphthong. In some accents of English spoken in ...


8

Here's my attempt at a compromise between extreme literalism and full idiomatic English (so that hopefully it'll be helpful to you as you compare against the Greek). Greek text taken from the SBL edition, with a couple parts rearranged slightly to make the English flow better. This edition notably adds accents and breathings (which weren't consistent in the ...


8

A she-wolf in Greek is ἡ λύκαινα. See, for instance, Plutarch's De Fortuna Romanorum, §8: εἶτα λύκαινα μὲν νεοτόκος σπαργῶσα καὶ πλημμυροῦσα τοὺς μαστοὺς γάλακτι, τῶν σκύμνων ἀπολωλότων, αὐτὴ χρῄζουσα κουφισμοῦ, περιέστειξε τὰ βρέφη καὶ θηλὴν ἐπέσχεν, ὥσπερ ὠδῖνα δευτέραν ἀποτιθεμένη τὴν τοῦ γάλακτος. Translation: There it was that a she-wolf, ...


8

The standard word for historical study was in fact archaeology. While Thucydides' "Archaeology" may be a conventional term, Josephus' Antiquitates in Greek was the Archaiologia (ἀρχαιολογία), and historical works by Cleanthes, Hieronymus the Egypytian inter alia were all titled similarly. That said, palaios is not semantically incorrect, and Appian ...


8

Ancient Greek plays weren't exactly divided into "acts" in the modern sense; they had a more complex structure, based largely on alternation between dialogue scenes and choral odes. A basic description of the overall structure of a tragedy can be found, for example, here (under "Divisions of a play"). [ETA: as C.M. Weimer points out in ...


8

Perhaps the word sucus "juice", which was in any case also used metaphorically used for "vigour, essence": amisimus, mi Pomponi, omnem non modo sucum ac sanguinem sed etiam colorem et speciem pristinae civitatis. — Cicero, Epistola XVIII ad Atticum, 2. The Loeb edition translates sucum et sanguinem as "vital essence". I don't ...


8

Transcriptions into Latin While there are no transcriptions from the time of Homer (since the alphabet didn't exist yet), these provide good evidence that the change from [aw] and [ew] to [af] and [ef] happened after the Classical period. A brief search turns up examples like Autolycon, Baucus, and Caunus in the Metamorphoses, as well as borrowed words like ...


7

Wiktionary has a useful table of correlatives. There is also one in Mastronarde's textbook Attic Greek pp. 319-320.


7

It isn't dual; it's dative singular. The dative is a dative of respect and depends on the adjective ἄπειρος. Therefore, the phrase ἄπειρος...πλήθει means 'limitless in (with respect to) magnitude/extent/quantity.'


6

The line being translated here is actually the preceding line, Odyssey 6.159: οὐ γάρ πω τοιοῦτον ἴδον βροτὸν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν Literally, this means "for not yet have I seen such a mortal with (my) eyes". The words "like you" are not in the Greek, though they're implied. This means there isn't a simple change you could make that would turn ...


6

This page has some helpful info. On an English keyboard, the accent found on the semicolon renders a tonos (modern); the accent found on the Q renders an oxia (ancient). Basically, these two accents -- tonos and oxia -- exist in Unicode for historical reasons, but there is (or ought to be) no actual difference between them in meaning or usage; the oxia is ...


6

It's not the case that all Greek verbs with thematic presents form thematic aorists, nor that all verbs with athematic presents form athematic aorists. There are exceptions both ways: for example γιγνώσκω, ἔγνων, but on the other hand δείκνυμι, ἔδειξα. Smyth §687 gives a list of the first type of verbs. As with many common Greek verbs, this is an ...


6

As best I can tell, this is due to a mild case of suppletion. In Classical Greek, the verb system hadn't gotten as thoroughly regularized as it was in e.g. Latin (with its four-and-a-half nicely-delineated conjugations); different systems of the "same" verb could come from different Proto-Indo-European constructions, like with πείθω's two different ...


6

In the case you mention, πλήθει is actually the dative singular of πλῆθος. This is the standard declension for neuter 3rd declension nouns ending in vowel + sigma, as indicated on this page with the model of "τέλος." It is a dative of respect modifying ἄπειρος, as the translation accurately captures: "infinite in number."


6

Greek loves its participles, and often uses participles where English would use relative clauses. This sometimes leads to multiple participles in a single phrase, as here: καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα. and there was a man having [better English, "who had"] a withered hand. It wouldn't be wrong to use ὁς with a finite verb ...


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