21

Learning Latin is (generally speaking*) easier than Greek; you don't need to learn a new alphabet, and if you know a little bit of Italian, French or Spanish, you might recognize some of the words. Even English has, because of the large influence of French, many words whose roots can be traced back to Latin. Since it's easier, you're more likely to make ...


19

"Living" is an undertranslation of "ἀθάνατος." "Living" has a straightforward translation from "ζῆν" (to live): the participle "ζῶν"; "ἀθάνατος," however, means "not mortal," as opposed to "not dead." If it simply meant "not dead," then your appeal to the law of excluded middle would be justified. God is living (ζῶν) and immortal (ἀθάνατος). A dog is ...


16

I would go further than Draconis's answer and say that we can be pretty certain that these diphthongs were indeed diphthongs in Homer's time. Here are some additional arguments: The Homeric poems took shape over centuries so there was likely some amount of temporal and other variation in the pronunciation of "Homeric Greek". But that process ...


16

The word you are looking for would be taxonomy, from τάσσω, fut. τάξω, to arrange in a certain order, e.g. of troops. Τακτικός is that which is required for the arrangement: the tactics.


15

You'll basically have to memorise them, yes, though there are patterns. Both the η- in ἠλευθέρουν and the ει- in εἶχον represent a contraction of ε + ε, but the former is much older than the latter. The ε + ε > η contraction dates to a time (prehistoric, as far as Attic is concerned) when η was still meaningfully the long version of ε, which is also when ...


14

No, there are plenty of ancient Greek words that have μπ and ντ in there somewhere. Two common words off the top of my head are ἀντί and πέμπω, thoroughly attested throughout ancient Greek. If you want to see all the ancient Greek words that merely start with ἀντ-, you can start here and scroll through many scores of entries. What you won't see, though, are ...


13

The best choice depends on various things, like your goals, the time available, your language background, the courses you could attend, and probably other factors that did not occur to me. I will give my answer with my reasoning, but it is up to you to decide whether that reasoning applies to you as well. I never was a full time student of classics; it was a ...


12

It's the other way around, actually: Latin lost this -s, and Greek retained it! In older Latin, and fossilized phrases like pater familiās "father of the household", you see the genitive singular in -ās. The standard explanation I've seen for this change is influence from the second declension (-us -ī). The second declension in Latin originally had ...


12

Accusative of respect: 'He's old/an old man with respect to his hair(s)' – i.e., his hair is that of an old man. Draconis has alluded to this in the other answer, but it's worth making explicit that τὰς φρένας in the last line is the same sort of accusative (whatever name one calls it by): 'He's young in respect to his mind/heart' – i.e., he's young at heart....


11

ἀθάνατος uses the privative ἀ- (from [ἀν-][2] = "not"). Adding the privative prefix to a noun makes a compound meaning "one who is without [noun]". Since θάνατος means death, strictly etymologically, ἀθάνατος means immortal. [2]: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?la=greek&l=%E1%BC%80%CE%BD-#Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=a)/...


11

Short answer: no, athanatos means "immortal", not just "living". Longer answer: compare the English word "immortal". It comes from the Latin in- ("not") + mort- ("death"). So you could argue etymologically that "immortal" should mean "alive" ("not dead"). However, that's not what it means; "immortal" means not just "not dead", but "unable to die". The same ...


11

To add on a bit to cnread's (completely valid) answer: this is a form that's also called the "accusative of body parts" or the "Greek accusative" (since it wasn't common in Latin until Greek-influenced writers started imitating it—even though Greek has a whole bunch of other accusative constructions). It usually specifies a body part that ...


11

Koiné Greek & earlier lacked initial <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> although these strings are commonplace word-internally. There are however a small number of Modern Greek words beginning <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> that are inherited from Koiné Greek or earlier Originally, the letters <β>, <δ>, & <γ> were used to ...


11

"Is this just a phonetic thing in this word, rather than a semantic one?" Yep. In fact, as Smyth says, αἰδώς is the only such "-οσ- stem" word in Attic. (In Homer you will also find ἠώς "dawn", which in Attic declines as an "Attic declension" noun, on which see below). So it might as well be considered irregular. The ...


11

The Greek word for 'nature' was indeed φύσις. It is derived from the Greek word φύειν, which means 'to grow,' and was used for a variety of things, including natural appearance, natural character, and the natural order of things. It was often contrasted with νόμος, the Greek word for 'custom' (and later 'law'). The word φυσικός is an adjective derived from ...


10

Whether a relative pronoun is ‘needed’ depends, in part, on how the participles ἔχων and ἐξηραμμένην are functioning. ἐξηραμμένην (withered) is functioning as a verbal adjective, modifying τὴν χεῖρα (the hand). In English, we can say “the hand was withered”, "the hand that was withered", or simply “the withered hand”. So, the first thing we can ...


10

C M Weimer is completely correct, but to add on a bit: The reason ΜΠ and ΝΤ are used for /b/ and /d/ nowadays is because, historically, the voiced stops Β Δ Γ turned into fricatives, and then later the unvoiced stops Π Τ Κ got voiced after nasals. When Greek-speakers heard /b/ in words like Turkish bakkal, the closest equivalent in their language was the ...


10

The etymology of ἀρά is unclear. There is an Arcadian inscriptional form καταρϝος which shows that it had a digamma (which actually confuses things further since if so, the Attic form should regularly be ἀρή). Various IE cognates have been proposed; a connection with Lat. ōrō seems not to be widely accepted, but there is a possible Hittite cognate aruwae- ...


10

As is often the case with these quotes, it's actually a summary of a summary of Plato. We see an early version in Ernst Cassirer's 1944 essay An Essasy on Man: It is impossible—says Plato in the Republic—to implant truth in the soul of a man as it is to give the power of seeing to a man born blind...Here we have the new, indirect answer to the question &...


9

As you mention, this is a reference to the scholia (i.e. line-by-line commentary) on Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound for a given line of the play. Using the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, I found the full reference, which is actually to line 966 (not 969). In this part of the play, Promethetus tells Hermes: Προμηθεύς: τῆς σῆς λατρείας τὴν ἐμὴν δυσπραξίαν, σαφῶς ...


9

As Asteroides has said, the "classical" pronunciation (from the fifth century BCE or thereabouts) is reconstructed as /ɛː/, a longer version of the vowel in English "red". However, there are quite a lot of different ways to pronounce Ancient Greek—and unlike with Latin, the "reconstructed classical" version hasn't caught on as ...


9

This page has some helpful info. On an English keyboard, the accent found on the semicolon renders a tonos (modern); the accent found on the Q renders an oxia (ancient). Basically, these two accents – tonos and oxia – exist in Unicode for historical reasons, but there is (or ought to be) no actual difference between them in meaning or usage; the oxia is now ...


9

You have it backwards. The sigma is original. From Sihler 263.7: Gen.sg. PIE *-es, *-os, *-s are all attested forms of the gen.sg. marker and all three would yield much the same results in the historically attested IE languages when added to the stem *-eH2-. Most authorities assume a full grade form, and G ending-accented forms in *-ᾱς, Att.-Ion. *-ης, are ...


9

@TKR is right about the specific case of αἰδώς and mentioned the Attic declension, but there's more to say: there is a good number of Greek nouns ending in -ως even outside the Attic declension, and the question of whether it's a meaningful suffix for forming words out of other words there is worth asking. Going through Wiktionary's list of Greek nouns and ...


9

Yes, μαθητεία is a word that would certainly be understood in this context, though in practice it was usual to talk about someone being a μαθητής to someone rather than about μαθητεία in the abstract. This applies not just in the context of manual craftsmanship but for any τέχνη, including e.g. rhetoric.


9

The closest Greek equivalent to a Latin gerundive is one of the verbal adjectives ending in -τέος (formed on the aorist passive stem). Both ποιέω and πράττω – unlike ἄγω, as you note – are generally equivalent in sense to Latin ago when it means 'to do.' Therefore, the corresponding equivalents to the neuter plural gerundive agenda would be τὰ ποιητέα and τὰ ...


9

In Greek this is Ὁ Μέγας Κανών, but sometimes it is referred to by its first line: Πόθεν ἄρξομαι θρηνεῖν. In Latin it's called the Magnus Canon. In the link provided, the orignal Greek is set side by side with a Latin translation. Here's a transcription of the Latin (along with some errors): MAGNUS CANON Adjutor et protector factus est mihi in salutem: Iste ...


9

ἀέκων is morphologically a participle (or rather a negation of a participle ἕκων "willing"); it declines just like present participles of the λύων type, so its stem is ἀέκοντ-, and the feminine is ἀέκουσα like λύουσα. You can tell this from its dictionary entry, which should tell you that the genitive masculine is ἀέκοντος (rather than ἀέκονος). ...


9

Another common English word is syntax: literally the "ordering together" of words, from συντάσσω > σύνταξις.


8

Here's my attempt at a compromise between extreme literalism and full idiomatic English (so that hopefully it'll be helpful to you as you compare against the Greek). Greek text taken from the SBL edition, with a couple parts rearranged slightly to make the English flow better. This edition notably adds accents and breathings (which weren't consistent in the ...


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