There are indeed a few examples of such words from ancient texts, but they are very rare. They are still formed from the supine stem, meaning that the original dental consonant (d or t) is replaced with s, to which -trix or -trum is then appended.
The Perseus Project provides a search tool for its dictionaries (in particular, Lewis & Short) which allows ...
It's the former, curricula vitae. As the article linked in Wikipedia points out, vitarum would indicate that there are multiple lives mentioned per each curriculum. However, vitae as a genitive is describing the type of curriculum, and curriculum itself is the object that needs to be singular or plural.
This isn't so confusing if you plug it back into ...
First, Galilaee sounds right.
See this question about the vocative of Gnaeus for details.
There are situations where one finds -ee- in Latin without the first e belonging to ae.
What I found is not word-final, but I assume that is not important for your question.
There are forms of deesse and deerrare, and if the diphthong ae is included, also forms of ...
All the terms you used are used by Classical authors (and then some), but there is some differentiation of terms.
Lingua Latina is what the Romans called their language. If you ever see Latina by itself to refer to language, lingua is naturally implied. However, that typically wasn't the way they referred to speaking the language. Instead the adverbial form ...
Since this is not exactly my area of expertise, I will quote Rex Wallace (Wallace 2011).
He argues that the earliest Latin inscriptions were written from right to left and from left to right (p. 22). He mentions three examples of right-to-left inscriptions in Latin: the Vetusia inscription (ET La 2.1) and the Fibula Praenestina (CIL I².3). Not everyone ...
We do in fact have a couple.
The best little collection of Old Latin inscriptions is found in Warmington's old Loeb, Remains of Old Latin IV: Archaic Inscriptions. It's a tiny bit out of date, but otherwise holds up well as an anthology of old inscriptions with a very good translation to go along with it.
Thumbing through quickly, I noticed a couple ...
It is rare to find a true (i.e. non-deponent) passive imperative, because the idea of ordering someone to do something is opposed to the idea of having something done to you.
Pinkster, in Oxford Latin Syntax (pg. 164), explains this more clearly:
The grammatical category of 'mood' is one of the means by which the speaker can convey his view of the ...
The Vulgata is full with proper nouns having double -ee, specially as endings (e.g. Bersabee, Phacee, Osee). I imagine you are not particularly interested in these. Below are all the other words I could find:
deest, deerunt, deessent, deerit, deerant, etc. E.g.
Nm 21:5 locutusque contra Deum et Moysen, ait : Cur eduxisti nos de Ægypto, ut moreremur in ...
You're right to look at Vitruvius for this. The best expression in Latin for "perpendicular" is actually the Greek πρὸς ὀρθᾶς, as Vitruvius uses in 9.7.
Itaque in quibuscumque locis horologia erunt describenda, eo loci sumenda est aequinoctialis umbra, et si erunt quemadmodum Romae gnomonis partes novem, umbrae octo, linea describatur in planitia et e ...
Well, I don't know if it counts, but I think you should search among recent species re-classing.
When Linnaeus wrote, Latin names were the logical option to choose a scientific name from. That is why it seems hard to even find one single example of what you're looking for. More recent descriptions of old species (especially when a single common name is ...
I searched through plausible forms (particularly adverbial forms of adjectives ending in -quus) and only found one example:
in rebus minoribus socium fallere turpissimum est aequeque turpe atque illud de quo ante dixi (Cic. S. Rosc. 40)
simili quae praedita constant
natura atque ipsae res sunt aequeque laborant
et pereunt (Lucr. 1.847)
The most common form of expressing "Latin" when referring to the language is, as you note, to use lingua latina. Here are a few examples, many taken from the Lewis & Short entry for lingua:
ita sentio et saepe disserui, Latinam linguam non modo non inopem, ut vulgo putarent, sed locupletiorem etiam esse quam Graecam. (Cicero, de Finibus Bonorum et ...
The next time you get into that dream, use a plain est.
Here is an example from Caesar:
Flumen est Arar, quod per fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum in Rhodanum influit…
(Commentarii de bello Gallico I.12)
There is a river called the Saone, which flows through the territories of the Aedui and Sequani into the Rhone…
(W. A. McDevitte and ...
N.N. is still used in Spanish and some other languages. It comes from nomen nescio. Although it is not a name, it is actually used as if it were.
Also, according to this, Numerius Negidius was used "in jurisprudence in ancient Rome (...) specifically to refer to the defendant in a hypothetical lawsuit", and was an intentional wordplay to fit N.N.
See also: ...
I find Vicipædia fairly untrustworthy as a rule. Scandala does not occur in Lewis & Short; perhaps the author(s) of the Vicipædia article are thinking of secāle, which is used in Pliny of black spelt (though I don't know what the difference is between spelt and black spelt, and some apparently think secāle refers to rye).
Spelta is part of the Linnaean ...
The second book of the Saturnalia of Macrobius (5th century AD) is a kind of anthology of Roman jokes, attributed to various famous people. Here are some selections from it, with a short summary below each.
Hannibal and the King of Antioch
Ostendebat [rex] Antiochus in campo copias ingentes quas bellum populo Romano facturus conparaverat, convertebatque ...
They did to a certain extent. I'm not aware of general holiday greetings, but at least for Saturnalia, they used the phrase Io, Saturnalia! Compare Martial 11.2.5:
Clamant ecce mei 'Io Saturnialia' versus
et licet et sub te praeside, Nerva, libet.
For Brumalia, they would greet each other with vives annos,1 although it's uncertain how early this ...
I agree with C. M. Weimer's response and have found three authors who use curricula vitae in their writings.
ante Socratem Democritum Anaxagoram Empedoclem omnes paene veteres, qui nihil cognosci nihil percipi nihil sciri posse dixerunt, angustos sensus imbecillos animos brevia curricula vitae et ut Democritus in profundo veritatem esse demersam......
Varro mentions the possibility:
De Lingua Latina 9.75.4ff.
obliquos non habere ut in hoc Diespiter Diespitri Diespitrem, Maspiter Maspitri Maspitrem. ad haec respondeo et priora habere nominandi et posteriora patrici esset casus. ut ovis, et avis. sic in obliquis casibus cur negent esse Diespitri Diespitrem non video, nisi quod minus est tritum in ...
It is worth pointing out that native speakers of Latin were well aware of the ambiguity referred to by Joonas in his question (directional/locative prefix IN- vs. negative prefix IN-). For example, consider the ambiguity of invocatus ('called upon' and 'not called upon') that is comically exploited by Plautus in the following text (Pl. Capt. 1, 69ff.):
Yes, it does have an ancient origin. See RFC 5332 (3.6.5):
When used in a reply, the field body MAY start with the
string "Re: " (an abbreviation of the Latin "in re", meaning "in the
matter of") followed by the contents of the "Subject:" field body of
the original message. If this is done, only one instance of the
literal string "Re: ...
Here is one example of Cicero using it:
nam si quis minorem gloriae fructum putat ex Graecis versibus percipi quam ex Latinis, vehementer errat, propterea quod Graeca leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus, Latina suis finibus exiguis sane continentur
The linked dictionary entry of Latinus has this definition:
of Latium, Latin: genus, the Romans, V.: ...
Varro, writing in book 5 of De Lingua Latina, about how things are named in Latin (!), has many examples, though not exactly of the kind of sentence you're asking about. Here are a few.
Amnis id flumen quod circuit aliquod: nam ab ambitu amnis. Ab hoc qui circum Aternum habitant, Amiternini appellati.
An amnis is a river that goes around ...
It depends on how much emphasis you put on "unambiguously refers to an individual human being". I don't know of any examples that are just like παιδίον or Mädchen. Several Latin grammars that I have looked at include short lists of neuter nouns that seem to have been used fairly regularly to refer to human beings, but it seems like most of these words did ...
Lewis & Short II.B.5 has this definition:
To bring forward, propose, adduce; to bring to mind, prompt, suggest
with these examples:
"cupio mihi ab illo, iudices, subici, quoniam de militari eius gloria dico, si quid forte praetereo." (Cic. Verr. 2.5.25)
"I wish, O judges, to be prompted by him, since I am speaking of his military renown,...
The last line of an AD 49 boundary stone uses the Ⅎ twice, representing the consonantal v:
The last line reads: ampliaℲit terminaℲitq[ue]. (Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy, 118).
According to John Wordsworth, a few other examples include:
VOℲIMVS, ℲOℲEMVS, ARℲALES, ARℲALIVM [...] BOℲE, IOℲI [...] ℲELINA, ℲIR
As for the Ⱶ, its use is ...
This list will have some false positives, but the Packard Humanities Institute Latin Texts website generates this collection of all instances of "iri" in its corpus (179 total instances):
Cicero uses quaestio, as in quaestio est iurene occiderit..., implying the meaning "problem (concerning)". Maybe the preposition circa could help, in the appropriate context; Greek has the perfect περὶ + gen.
No, valde can at most take a comparative adjective, not a superlative. However, "vel" can be used in your case. "vel" + a superlative is common in Latin literature, for example in Cicero's Pro Roscio Amerino:
vel potentissimus ... L. Cornelius Chrysogonus
optime natalis! / best of birthdays!
from Ovid, Tristia, 5.5, line 13?
vivat … consumatque annos … suos / long life to her … and may she pass to the end of her years
also from Ovid, Tristia, 5.5, line 23.
Other possibilities from genethliacon/birthday poems include:
transeat hic sine nube dies / may this day pass without a cloud