48

The Latin language is named after the area it was spoken in — or the people that spoke it. (It is impossible to distinguish the two.) Latin, by name, is the language of Latium (Lazio in today's Italian), not the language of Rome. Alternatively, you can see it as the language of the tribe of Latins. Latinus is the Latin adjective meaning "related to ...


41

Yes, they used swear words all the time! There's actually a whole book on the subject, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary by J. N. Adams. Cinaedus (the bad slang for a passive homosexual male), mentula (dick), and cunnus (cunt) are perhaps the most common and dirtiest insults. You can see on Wikipedia a larger list, too. There's actually a nice little poem—...


39

The way I was taught was that, as a general rule, -que is used: When this list of things contains two items When the two are logically linked as being two of something (parent and child, master and apprentice, and so on). So, consider the example of an opening line from Catullus: Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque Venus and Cupid have a parent-child ...


34

Cola is a Latinized form of kola, taken from some Niger-Congo language (it's not clear which) and applied to a genus of plants. It isn't a native Latin word and would have been unfamiliar to the Romans (except as the plural of the Greek borrowing colon, used as a technical term in rhetoric—completely unrelated). So by these standards, I'd agree with K-HB ...


31

I think the word you want is ēheu, which L&S define as "an interjection of pain or grief". It's often translated as "alas", mostly because it appears in epic poetry where a grandiose and formal translation is appropriate. But it's also common in the vulgar speech of Plautus, where I would translate it as "ah, f---" or some similar profanity.


26

As you mention, Latin hippopotamus, -i comes from Greek ἱπποπόταμος, which is a compound of ἵππος (hippos = horse) and ποταμός (potamos = river). In Latin, Lewis and Short cites instances in Pomponius Mela (AD 45), Pliny (AD 79), and Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 400). In Greek, the LSJ includes references from Dioscorides (AD 90), Galen (AD c. 200), and ...


26

Seneca the Younger gave the following irreverent account of Claudius' last words: Ultima vox eius haec inter homines audita est, cum maiorem sonitum emisisset illa parte qua facilius loquebatur: "vae me, puto, concacavi me." Quod an fecerit, nescio: omnia certe concacavit. These were the final words he was heard to utter among men, when he had let ...


26

The book is correct. There is no equivalent to "the" in Classical Latin. In Vulgar Latin, the demonstrative ille (which means "that" in Classical Latin) got bleached into a definite article, with a meaning similar to English "the". That's where forms like Spanish el, Italian il, French le, and so on come from. But that wasn't good Classical style.


24

The word "Brexit" is a noun, meaning "the exit of Britain from the EU". The noun "exit" is exitus, fourth declension. Therefore a natural analogue of the English "Brexit" would be Brexitus. There might be some use for a verb brexire, but I believe the noun is most relevant. I have seen "Brexit" used a number of times, and in all cases it has been a noun &...


23

The word latin comes from latinus, "of Latium," a region in central Italy. In this territory, around the turn of the first millennium BC, lived a tribe known as the Latins, and their language was the immediate predecessor of Old Latin. Not coincidentally, Rome was founded in this region around the 8th century BC. Other peoples were involved as well, such ...


22

There are indeed a few examples of such words from ancient texts, but they are very rare. They are still formed from the supine stem, meaning that the original dental consonant (d or t) is replaced with s, to which -trix or -trum is then appended. The Perseus Project provides a search tool for its dictionaries (in particular, Lewis & Short) which allows ...


21

The second form is the genitive singular. The above answers address the substance of your question, but I wanted to add as a supplementary answer something that doesn't appear to be explicitly stated elsewhere: The genitive singular is the only form that is unique and uniform for each declension. Unique: No other declension has the same genitive singular ...


20

Simply, vel is inclusive and aut is exclusive. As Lewis and Short put it: In general aut puts in the place of a previous assertion another, objectively and absolutely antithetical to it, while vel indicates that the contrast rests upon subjective opinion or choice; i. e. aut is objective, vel subjective, or aut excludes one term, vel makes the two ...


20

All the terms you used are used by Classical authors (and then some), but there is some differentiation of terms. Lingua Latina is what the Romans called their language. If you ever see Latina by itself to refer to language, lingua is naturally implied. However, that typically wasn't the way they referred to speaking the language. Instead the adverbial form ...


20

In Latin you need a verb to say "please". The verb quaesere mentioned by ktm5124 is a good one, but not the only one. That verb is used typically only in first person singular or plural present nominative, quaeso or quaesumus. Here are some other verbs meaning "ask", "beg", or similar: petere rogare precari orare Because these are verbs, you need to be ...


20

In Classical Latin, there were no words exactly corresponding to "yes" and "no". Non and ne were negatives, but they needed to combine with other words (like "not" in English). There were, however, particles which could be used to agree with something. Both ita and sīc meant "thus", and became words for "yes" in the Romance languages. So if someone asked if ...


20

This question makes me recall my childhood. I see two approaches to an answer: 1. there is a complete list from a XVII century author, and 2. a compilation of classical and post-classical names by L&S. 1. Complete list (late Latin) According to the Harmonia Macrocosmica by Andreas Cellarius (XVII century,) the phases are: 🌑 New Moon: Novilunium (Soli ...


20

My impression is that "Latin name" here means "scientific name (of a species)". Many people seem to conflate scientific names and Latin names, although the two are different concepts. The way I see it, the claim is that cola is the best-known scientific name of a species in taxonomy. This claim is not unreasonable, but I will not comment on whether it is ...


19

The best free, online Latin-English dictionary is undoubtedly Lewis and Short. There are several ways to access it, too, and they are given in separate answers. Most people seem to go straight to Tufts' Perseus website, which has the Lewis and Short in its entirety. As it provides a direct link to each word, this is a great way to link someone to a ...


19

These words are unrelated: they developed independently from different Proto-Indo-European roots, according to Michiel de Vaan's Etymological Dictionary (337–38). First, liber or librī, meaning "book," is thought to come from a PIE word meaning "leaf, rind": *lubʰ-ro-. De Vaan cites several Indo-European languages that have attested cognates and summarizes:...


18

I believe lacryma is generally considered a hypercorrect misspelling. The archaic Latin spelling was lacruma, still sometimes used in classical Latin, or an even older dacrima/dacruma. The standard spelling was lacrima. In Greek, it is spelled dakru or dakruon, which would be 'properly' translitterated into Latin as dacry(on). But the only spellings with a ...


18

It's possible that the identity is a coincidence and that the adjective and the noun are unrelated homophones. De Vaan's etymological dictionary lists the two words as separate entries and does not draw any connection between them. That said, it seems plausible that there is a relationship, namely that the "world" sense is based on a calque of the Greek ...


18

Unfortunately, the verbs have survived much better in writing than the actual onomatopoeia. A few of these are fairly clearly based on the sound: baubor "bark", hinnio "whinny", ululo "howl" (and ulula "owl"), mugio "moo", crocio "croak". See Suetonius, De Naturis Animantium for a long list of these. As far as directly transcribing animal sounds, only a few ...


18

English once did not have words for "yes" and "no" as they are precisely used today. Yes, for example, comes from ge (whence "yea") + sie, a subjunctive form of to be (beon). It literally meant "It is so." No in fact meant "not ever". From Etymonline: "negative reply," early 13c., from Old English na (adv.) "no, never, not at all," from ne "not, no" + ...


18

Well, to get the simple problem out of the way, it should be vidisti, not vedisti, but I assume that was just a mistyped letter. On to the main problem: You say you cannot find a word for destroy. The best path to finding a word is to consult a dictionary. An excellent English-Latin dictionary which is available online in several places is the one by ...


17

The masculine noun flāmen denotes a type of priest. The etymologically unrelated neuter noun flāmen means 'a blast, gust (of wind)' or 'an exhalation, breath.' Also, generally, the words for various fruit trees and the fruits that they produce differ only in gender. Examples include cerasus (f.), 'cherry tree,' vs. cerasum (n.), 'cherry'; mālus (f.), 'apple ...


16

It pains me to suggest that Latin Wikipedia is in error, but Latin Wikipedia is in error. The arma ignifera Nathanial suggests is in fact a word for firearm that some have used, but it's in the silva of the Morgan lexicon, not the adumbratio. The difference between the two is explained in a short piece by the lexicon's current editor, Patrick Owens: The ...


16

If you want to say "night bird" with the words "night" (nox) and "bird" (avis), you should say "bird of the night", avis noctis. When you decline this expression, noctis (of the night) remains in the genitive case whereas avis takes the required case. A more Latin way would be to use an adjective. I would go with nocturnus (nightly, nocturnal or nighttime). ...


16

The full range of meanings of Asia is already found in Herodotus. In fact, Herodotus notes that there are three continents: Europe, Asia, and Libya (=Africa), though he didn't particularly like the model himself. Asia, then was everything to the east of the Nile and Hellespont, and so included Persia, India, and the Asian steppes (see e.g. Herodotus 4.44, ...


16

This is dog Latin for "out of many come smartasses" (or "a smartass"). It's modelled off the phrase ē pluribus unum, "out of many [comes] one", which is printed on American currency, plus the fake Latin smart-assimus for "smartasses". The -us is typically a singular ending, but is also commonly used to create dog Latin in general. As a side note, while "...


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