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38

The way I was taught was that, as a general rule, -que is used: When this list of things contains two items When the two are logically linked as being two of something (parent and child, master and apprentice, and so on). So, consider the example of an opening line from Catullus: Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque Venus and Cupid have a parent-child ...


19

Simply, vel is inclusive and aut is exclusive. As Lewis and Short put it: In general aut puts in the place of a previous assertion another, objectively and absolutely antithetical to it, while vel indicates that the contrast rests upon subjective opinion or choice; i. e. aut is objective, vel subjective, or aut excludes one term, vel makes the two ...


19

Pray to God but row away from the rocks. You are correct in that ora means "pray" (it is the singular imperative of oro). Deo (dative of Deus) is the "to God" bit. Sed means "but," ab saxis (ablative plural) means "away from the rocks," and finally remiga is the singular imperative of remigo meaning "row." Now, the meaning of the quote, as I take it, is ...


18

"Memento" means "remember". Literally it's "remember to die", which means: "Remember you must die." The Christian meaning is not just "remember you are a mere mortal", but especially "remember you will face Lord in the day of judgment". That's why this was the Cistercians' motto.


18

It's possible that the identity is a coincidence and that the adjective and the noun are unrelated homophones. De Vaan's etymological dictionary lists the two words as separate entries and does not draw any connection between them. That said, it seems plausible that there is a relationship, namely that the "world" sense is based on a calque of the Greek ...


18

Lux can mean "light", and ex can mean "out (of)"; but that sign is wrong. The grammar is impossible; you can't just combine words like that in Latin. To give you a feel of the type of wrongness, consider a sign in English that said "Of She". That would sound almost like gibberish. It should be "of her", and even then it could mean many things. Likewise, ...


16

The line or mark of abbreviation above a vowel often stands for n or m in Mediaeval and Early Modern texts, so this is concutit, "pounds, shakes", possibly related to English quake. You will also find Cōtroversie in the margin of that edition.


16

I'll try to answer my own question, if I may. After a bit of research I discovered that no more than 300 years ago the meaning of Spanish actual was actually the same as English actual, as seen by this definition found in a Spanish dictionary from 1726: ACTUAL. Lo que real y verdaderamente existe al tiempo que se dice, ò enuncia. Translated: "what is ...


15

In Ecclesiastical Latin "-que" would be used in order to avoid to much repetition of the use of "et" and for drawing similarities to the original first noun in a statement, as is sometimes found various Litaniae Sanctorum. Sancti Petri et Pauli, atque Andrea, ora pro nobis. In this phrase we can see a similarity between Peter and Paul (Apostles of Rome) ...


15

This might not be the best question to ask for this format chiefly because there are so many color words in Latin, and their meanings are not always as simple and exact as English would have you believe. For one, "basic colors" is a modern categorization, though it does have its roots in ancient Aristotelian thought. See this paper if you have access to it. ...


13

Laetitia is a state of being, from laetus happy. Someone who is laetus has gaudium, in the sense that someone who is rich has money. It more generally should be translated as happiness instead of joy. It should be noted that the two words became synonymous in poetry and in later Latin prose. See the Lewis and Short entries under gaudium and laetitia. ...


13

Animal is certainly applicable to men, both in classical literary usage and in prevalent philosophical discourse. Classical Literary Usage Referring to man First, a few examples of animal being used to refer to men, all taken from the Lewis & Short entry for animal: animal hoc prouidum, sagax, multiplex, acutum, memor, plenum rationis et consilii, ...


13

It is generally accepted that liberi “children” is the same word as liber “free, not slave”. So, etymologically liberi are “free-born offspring of either sex”. But it is an error to assume that the semantic scope of any given word is fully determined by its etymology. Roman authors use liberi to mean “children” without necessarily commenting on their legal ...


13

The word dragon is far older than the Medieval dragon or the West's knowledge of the Chinese dragon. In fact, it's no coincidence, either, was dragon is derived from draco. It's the meaning of the former which has changed, so as an archaicism, dragon is still a fine translation. As to what the Greeks and Romans thought of draco (and δράκων), these would be ...


12

I read through Ron Conte's blog post and find it sloppy and unscholarly. He makes the (correct) point that Fr. Z's proposed translation sounds literal and stinted and, almost in the same words, asks us to use his translation even though it makes no grammatical sense, because he has translated many things. It does not help that his proposed translation is ...


12

Others pointed out the dictionary definition of iuvenis, but it would help to have a solid example. In Livy book 21.50, Ti. Sempronius met with Hiero at Syracuse. statum deinde insulae et Carthaginiensium conata exposuit pollicitusque est, quo animo priore bello populum Romanum iuvenis adiuvisset, eo senem adiuturum; frumentum vestimentaque sese ...


12

Memento precisely conveys that meaning, in my opinion. It is an imperative (like "do this", "do that"), which means "Remember!", as in "Do remember". This word is part of a very famous expression: memento mori. There are a few question on the meaning of such expression in this site. E.g. here.


11

It came to Latin from Hebrew (שָּׂטָן satan), through Greek (Σατανᾶς satanas) and means enemy, adversary. In Judaism and Christianity, it is also one of the names given to the devil, a supernatural creature that lead a rebelion against God and one of the main instigators of evil in the World. The -as ending is purely grammatical. As can be seen, it was ...


11

Venī, venīte means "come" in both singular and plural. Perhaps "come one, come all" would be a good translation? Personally I would just have used venīte twice. Spīritŭs means "spirit", while spīritūs means "spirits"; without the length marking on the u it could mean either. But the adjective sylvānī "of the forest" makes it clear that it's plural "spirits"....


11

Benedixit is a perfectly literal translation of ηὐλόγησεν and of בֵּרַכְתָּ with the difference only that the Latin and the Greek use 3rd sing. where the Hebrew uses 2nd sing. in oratio obliqua. Apparently in Hebrew “bless” can be used as a euphemism for “curse”. In Greek and Latin this happens only in translations from Hebrew.


11

This can be read as a dativus auctoris. It should then be translated thus: lest he should be suspected by his mistress / be suspect to his mistress Common in gerundive constructions (hostis nobis vincendus est), the dativus auctoris is also occasionally used with other passive verbs; it is then most common with past participles (mihi cognitum est: "it is ...


10

Mendicus was originally just a general term to refer to the poor, but it later took on a more specific meaning, referring to beggars. According to Michel Mollat's The Poor in the Middle Ages: An Essay in Social History, this was one of a number of general terms used to refer to the poor: words referring to impecuniosity and destitution in general (egens, ...


10

Yes, it's possible, but that's not the typical construction. 'Therefore' is the best translation in this spot, starting a whole new clause that isn't immediately dependent (in a meaningful sense, rather than in a grammatical sense) on the previous clause. In that respect, it's closer to igitur. I checked Smith's English-Latin dictionary for the comparative ...


10

The trick here is to broaden your translation not of obtinuere but of regnum. Lewis Elementary gives the following definition: kingly government, royal authority, kingship, royalty dominion, sovereignty, rule, authority, supreme power despotism, tyranny, personal sovereignty, arbitrary rule a kingdom, state governed by a king [figuratively] ...


10

Let me offer a new transcription and translation: In tam perniciosa varietate fanaticarum et pestilentium opinionum, quibus hoc aevo misere orbem concutit Christianum Satan, non minimum eam momenti esse sentio, princeps ilustrissime: quam idem ille velut perditissimum seminarium, mentibus hominum insevit incantamentorum nomine. In such a pernicious ...


10

Usage Lewis and Short glosses fessus as: wearied, tired, fatigued; worn out, weak, feeble, infirm It lists defessus (which is the past participle of dēfĕtiscor as a synonym. It has a similar meaning: to become tired or wearied; to grow weary, faint; to be exhausted So far, this isn't helpful. Our breakthrough comes, though, when we realize that de- ...


9

Here's another approach: Dīxistī mihi quidlibet in mundō licitum esse, Ad saltātrīcēs prōtinus adspiciō! In what I've read—mostly elementary materials—you can just skip the conjunction or adverb, and go straight to the follow-up sentence or clause. In the above, I've also switched from past tense to present tense, the present tense in Latin having ...


9

Urina is actually a euphemism, although how old is that euphemism is up for debate. The root of urina is a variant of the Proto-Indo-European we-r-, which Etymonline summarizes nicely: *ur- variant of root *we-r- "water, liquid, milk" (cognates: Sanskrit var "water," Avestan var "rain," Lithuanian jures "sea," Old English wær, Old Norse ver "sea," Old ...


9

@JoonasIlmavirta gave an excellent answer. I'll just add that one thing that can help is understanding that the Romans tended to talk about concrete things rather than abstract things, and when an abstraction comes up ("matter," "difficulty," etc., etc.), rēs is often the word they ended up choosing. This is a gross generalization, of course, but it's one ...


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