26

The book is correct. There is no equivalent to "the" in Classical Latin. In Vulgar Latin, the demonstrative ille (which means "that" in Classical Latin) got bleached into a definite article, with a meaning similar to English "the". That's where forms like Spanish el, Italian il, French le, and so on come from. But that wasn't good Classical style.


18

Well, to get the simple problem out of the way, it should be vidisti, not vedisti, but I assume that was just a mistyped letter. On to the main problem: You say you cannot find a word for destroy. The best path to finding a word is to consult a dictionary. An excellent English-Latin dictionary which is available online in several places is the one by ...


17

The masculine noun flāmen denotes a type of priest. The etymologically unrelated neuter noun flāmen means 'a blast, gust (of wind)' or 'an exhalation, breath.' Also, generally, the words for various fruit trees and the fruits that they produce differ only in gender. Examples include cerasus (f.), 'cherry tree,' vs. cerasum (n.), 'cherry'; mālus (f.), 'apple ...


16

Wiktionary has over 350 reconstructed terms for Latin. Each of these have been proposed by linguists based on etymological evidence. Each page for these terms is described as follows: This Latin entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on ...


15

The verb you're looking for is delere, whose second-person singular perfect active indicative is delevisti. Here, though, its syncopated form is clearly better: Venisti, vidisti, delesti.


13

Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In Latin, these forms evolved into est and sōns, respectively (vowels get lengthened before -ns). The latter is where we get forms like absēns > "absent" and ...


11

In fact, dies does have a slightly different meaning in the two genders. The masculine is the more general meaning, but for specific meanings like an appointed special day or day as a deity you need the feminine. This division probably has to do with the word being originally masculine but being leveled to feminine gender to conform with the rest of the ...


11

I found an article that gives some excellent examples of this usage as well as practical tips for how to recognize it: Thomas Nelson, "The Third Qui, and Six Ways to Recognize It, or 'Who Happens, Maecenas?'" Nelson begins by noting that there are three kinds of qui. The first two are ubiquitous, and found in the L&S entry for the first meaning of qui: ...


11

I would go with Mors humanae gentis inimicis. This is a literal translation that follows the original pretty closely: mors "death", humanae gentis "of the human race, of mankind", inimicis "to the enemies". Latin word order is flexible; this order sounds best to me, but others would be grammatically correct too. (Note that if you ask Google Translate, ...


11

A good word for "liar," which can be used either as an adjective or as a noun alone, is mendax, -cis. Here's Plautus in Truculentus: D. Redin an non redis? A. Vocat me quae in me potest plus quam potes. D. Vno verbo A. Eloquere. D. Mittin me intro? A. Mendax es, abi. unum aiebas, tria iam dixti verba, atque ea mendacia. My quick translation: ...


10

Indeed, I cannot find any hits for "purr" in the LSJ, nor any verbs containing the words "cat" or "cats" in their entries! Quite a shame. But there are several onomatopoeic verbs for making a low growling sound, such as ἀρῥάζω (arrházō), "to go arrha". Arrha, with a long, extended trill, sounds fairly close to a purr. For a usage example, here's Aelian: ...


10

As for the Gregorian calendar, the source is indeed (Ecclesiastical) Latin: Deinde, ne in posterum a XII Kalendas Aprilis æquinoctium recedat, statuimus bissextum quarto quoque anno (uti mos est) continuari debere, præterquam in centesimis annis; qui, quamvis bissextiles antea semper fuerint, qualem etiam esse volumus annum MDC, post eum tamen qui ...


9

I guess it would be something like hypothesis continui. Alternatively, it could also be rendered as hypothesis de continuo. Note that noun-noun compounds like "continuum hypothesis" or "string theory" are possible in some languages (e.g., English, Mandarin Chinese, A(merican) S(ign) L(anguage), Japanese, etc). In contrast, Latin is not to be classified into ...


8

Unfortunately, there's only one good way to know, and your teacher isn't giving it to you! All vowels in Classical Latin are either "long" or "short". Long vowels were quite literally pronounced for longer, and also with a slightly different quality: long i was pronounced roughly like in English "beat", while short i was more like English "bit". Most ...


8

'cave lectorem tuus anima mea' This is pretty close! Just some case and agreement issues. Cave means "beware!" as a command to someone; caveat means "may [he/she] beware". So if you use cave you're talking to the person directly (cave canem "watch out for the dog!"), and if you use caveat you're talking about them (caveat emptor "the buyer should be wary")....


8

My immediate instinct is to switch subject and object. Though I'd be happy to learn that there is a Latin way of saying "X fits in Y," there are definitely natural ways to say "Y holds X." My suggestion for "The souvenir does not fit in my bag" is: Sacculus non capit monumentum. (Thanks to Tony in the comments and Tom Cotton's answer for their ...


8

As far as I can see, your basic premise is doubtful, inasmuch as classical sources appear to have defined virgo in the same way as has been done down to modern times. Certainly, the word was then applied to girls, young women and various males, but generally implying maidenhood, sc. an absence of sexual experience. There are plenty of examples. Cicero has a ...


8

I have used Duolingo for other languages, and I've now briefly tested it for Latin. There are two major issues: It goes way too fast. If the course has to be short for practical reasons, I would much rather have it stop early than go fast. The system is too inflexible at accepting translations in both directions. I am not sure if you can even reasonably ...


8

I think you are right that sanus more correctly describes a healthy state, whereas saluber/salubris seems to be preferred to describe those things which bestow health. Some examples: Climate: ex saluberrimis Galliae et Hispaniae after the very healthy [climate]* of Gaul and Spain Caesar, Civil War, III.2 *climate is implied because the contrast ...


8

Your analysis is correct: this is fīlia "daughter" + -ne "?". The trick is, -ne can attach to any word, not just verbs. In fact, it usually attaches to either the first word, or the most emphatic word, whatever that might be. Since nōn often comes at the beginning, nōn-ne became common enough that you'll often see it analyzed as a word of its own, rather ...


8

According to L&S, the adjective mendax was used as a noun to mean liar: I.given to lying, mendacious; subst., a liar. I. Lit.: “mendacem esse adversus aliquem,” Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 188: “cum mendaci homini, ne verum quidem dicenti, credere soleamus,” Cic. Div. 2, 71, 146: “Carthaginienses fraudulenti et mendaces,” id. Agr. 2, 35, 95: “...


7

Two examples come to mind: λῦσαι (aorist masculine imperative 2nd person singular, or aorist active infinitive, of λύω) contrasts with λύσαι (aorist active optative 3rd person singular of the same verb). (Smyth's grammar) And this minimal pair isn't strictly between two different words (since γαλήν᾽ is an apocope of γαλήνα), but it's worth mentioning the ...


7

All of your translations look good to me! Some of these words have other common meanings, like hylē meaning "forest", but these are reasonable technical terms that I wouldn't be surprised to find in Aristotle or the like. However, if you're going for the Ancient Greek aesthetic, I'd use the letter y instead of u for hypsilon when it's not part of a ...


7

In Latin, it's fairly common to stick prepositions onto the fronts of verbs to create new shades of meaning. Sometimes the new meaning is the same as the verb plus the preposition (advenīre is basically the same as venīre ad), sometimes it's just plain intensive (dēplorāre is just plorāre but stronger), and sometimes it creates a new meaning different from ...


7

As discussed here: When did the word "ly" enter the Latin language and where did it come from? the word "ly" is occasionally used as a definite article in mediaeval Church Latin.


6

In this case the word isn't aurea but aureus, an adjective meaning "golden, of gold"—in the feminine singular and neuter plural it looks just like aurea "bridle", but the "golden" meaning is much more common. Very literal translation: trecenta quoque scuta aurea trecentorum aureorum, quibus tegebantur singula scuta And also three hundred golden ...


6

The closest I can come is Cave lector, anima tua mea erit. means "Beware reader, your mind (or spirit, or soul) will be mine". I don't quite see how that adds up to "Who reads this is stupid", but maybe you can.


6

The word itself was typically a signum, a sign, as in Plautus's Miles Gloriosus: M: cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es. P: amat mulier quaedam quendam. M: Give the password, if you're one of these Bacchants. P: A certain woman loves a certain man. But in military contexts, a nightly password was usually written on a little piece of material (...


6

The classical word for "monad" is μονάς, plural μονάδες. μονάδα, plural -ες, is Modern Greek. μονάδαι looks like a pseudo-classical plural of the MG word. Where did you find it?


6

OLD defines the noun crepitus as 'A short sharp sound or a succession of such sounds, a creaking, cracking, crashing, clashing, etc.' This noun and related words are used to cover a fairly wide range of phenomena, such as the rattling of arrows in a quiver, the chattering of teeth, the fall of hail of a roof, the clicking of a bird's bill, the crackling of ...


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