26

The book is correct. There is no equivalent to "the" in Classical Latin. In Vulgar Latin, the demonstrative ille (which means "that" in Classical Latin) got bleached into a definite article, with a meaning similar to English "the". That's where forms like Spanish el, Italian il, French le, and so on come from. But that wasn't good Classical style.


18

Well, to get the simple problem out of the way, it should be vidisti, not vedisti, but I assume that was just a mistyped letter. On to the main problem: You say you cannot find a word for destroy. The best path to finding a word is to consult a dictionary. An excellent English-Latin dictionary which is available online in several places is the one by ...


17

The masculine noun flāmen denotes a type of priest. The etymologically unrelated neuter noun flāmen means 'a blast, gust (of wind)' or 'an exhalation, breath.' Also, generally, the words for various fruit trees and the fruits that they produce differ only in gender. Examples include cerasus (f.), 'cherry tree,' vs. cerasum (n.), 'cherry'; mālus (f.), 'apple ...


17

Wiktionary has over 350 reconstructed terms for Latin. Each of these have been proposed by linguists based on etymological evidence. Each page for these terms is described as follows: This Latin entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on ...


15

The verb you're looking for is delere, whose second-person singular perfect active indicative is delevisti. Here, though, its syncopated form is clearly better: Venisti, vidisti, delesti.


13

Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In Latin, these forms evolved into est and sōns, respectively (vowels get lengthened before -ns). The latter is where we get forms like absēns > "absent" and ...


12

Indeed, pestilentia does seem to describe any contagious disease as well as actual plague, just like Italian pestilenza, Spanish pestilencia, and Old French pestilence. The Romans didn't think twice about pretty much reducing any epidemic to pestis, plague. Actually I couldn't find any attestation of something like lebra est pestilentia, which would close ...


11

In fact, dies does have a slightly different meaning in the two genders. The masculine is the more general meaning, but for specific meanings like an appointed special day or day as a deity you need the feminine. This division probably has to do with the word being originally masculine but being leveled to feminine gender to conform with the rest of the ...


11

I found an article that gives some excellent examples of this usage as well as practical tips for how to recognize it: Thomas Nelson, "The Third Qui, and Six Ways to Recognize It, or 'Who Happens, Maecenas?'" Nelson begins by noting that there are three kinds of qui. The first two are ubiquitous, and found in the L&S entry for the first meaning of qui: ...


11

I would go with Mors humanae gentis inimicis. This is a literal translation that follows the original pretty closely: mors "death", humanae gentis "of the human race, of mankind", inimicis "to the enemies". Latin word order is flexible; this order sounds best to me, but others would be grammatically correct too. (Note that if you ask Google Translate, ...


11

A good word for "liar," which can be used either as an adjective or as a noun alone, is mendax, -cis. Here's Plautus in Truculentus: D. Redin an non redis? A. Vocat me quae in me potest plus quam potes. D. Vno verbo A. Eloquere. D. Mittin me intro? A. Mendax es, abi. unum aiebas, tria iam dixti verba, atque ea mendacia. My quick translation: D: ...


10

As for the Gregorian calendar, the source is indeed (Ecclesiastical) Latin: Deinde, ne in posterum a XII Kalendas Aprilis æquinoctium recedat, statuimus bissextum quarto quoque anno (uti mos est) continuari debere, præterquam in centesimis annis; qui, quamvis bissextiles antea semper fuerint, qualem etiam esse volumus annum MDC, post eum tamen qui ...


9

I guess it would be something like hypothesis continui. Alternatively, it could also be rendered as hypothesis de continuo. Note that noun-noun compounds like "continuum hypothesis" or "string theory" are possible in some languages (e.g., English, Mandarin Chinese, A(merican) S(ign) L(anguage), Japanese, etc). In contrast, Latin is not to be classified into ...


8

I have used Duolingo for other languages, and I've now briefly tested it for Latin. There are two major issues: It goes way too fast. If the course has to be short for practical reasons, I would much rather have it stop early than go fast. The system is too inflexible at accepting translations in both directions. I am not sure if you can even reasonably ...


8

As far as I can see, your basic premise is doubtful, inasmuch as classical sources appear to have defined virgo in the same way as has been done down to modern times. Certainly, the word was then applied to girls, young women and various males, but generally implying maidenhood, sc. an absence of sexual experience. There are plenty of examples. Cicero has a ...


8

I think you are right that sanus more correctly describes a healthy state, whereas saluber/salubris seems to be preferred to describe those things which bestow health. Some examples: Climate: ex saluberrimis Galliae et Hispaniae after the very healthy [climate]* of Gaul and Spain Caesar, Civil War, III.2 *climate is implied because the contrast ...


8

Your analysis is correct: this is fīlia "daughter" + -ne "?". The trick is, -ne can attach to any word, not just verbs. In fact, it usually attaches to either the first word, or the most emphatic word, whatever that might be. Since nōn often comes at the beginning, nōn-ne became common enough that you'll often see it analyzed as a word of its own, rather ...


8

According to L&S, the adjective mendax was used as a noun to mean liar: I.given to lying, mendacious; subst., a liar. I. Lit.: “mendacem esse adversus aliquem,” Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 188: “cum mendaci homini, ne verum quidem dicenti, credere soleamus,” Cic. Div. 2, 71, 146: “Carthaginienses fraudulenti et mendaces,” id. Agr. 2, 35, 95: “...


7

All of your translations look good to me! Some of these words have other common meanings, like hylē meaning "forest", but these are reasonable technical terms that I wouldn't be surprised to find in Aristotle or the like. However, if you're going for the Ancient Greek aesthetic, I'd use the letter y instead of u for hypsilon when it's not part of a ...


7

In Latin, it's fairly common to stick prepositions onto the fronts of verbs to create new shades of meaning. Sometimes the new meaning is the same as the verb plus the preposition (advenīre is basically the same as venīre ad), sometimes it's just plain intensive (dēplorāre is just plorāre but stronger), and sometimes it creates a new meaning different from ...


7

As discussed here: When did the word "ly" enter the Latin language and where did it come from? the word "ly" is occasionally used as a definite article in mediaeval Church Latin.


7

It depends on the exact word they'd be trying to borrow. Proto-Germanic was spoken in the first centuries CE and the Proto-Germanic word reflected as English dune is reconstructed as *dūnǭ or *dūnaz; the latter would be a straightforward dūnus (compare e.g. rattus 'rat' < PGmc *rattaz), the former likely dūnō (third declension, like sāpō 'soap' < PGmc *...


7

I'd use either pestilentia, plaga or, as you said, an epidemia. I'd call a pandemic a pandemia, simply because it makes perfect sense and is clear.


7

An urbs is a city, an oppidum is a town. It is quite common to use urbs to refer specifically to Rome, and the linked dictionary entry even says that oppidum is used for other cities than Rome. You could say that urbs is a capital and oppidum is a regular city. There are a number of ways to phrase and see it, but the crux is: urbs is bigger (in size or ...


6

OLD defines the noun crepitus as 'A short sharp sound or a succession of such sounds, a creaking, cracking, crashing, clashing, etc.' This noun and related words are used to cover a fairly wide range of phenomena, such as the rattling of arrows in a quiver, the chattering of teeth, the fall of hail of a roof, the clicking of a bird's bill, the crackling of ...


6

The classical word for "monad" is μονάς, plural μονάδες. μονάδα, plural -ες, is Modern Greek. μονάδαι looks like a pseudo-classical plural of the MG word. Where did you find it?


6

As L&S put it, in their classic textwall style (entry for in, II.C.2): Of the object or end in view, regarded also as the motive of action or effect: “non te in me illiberalem, sed me in se neglegentem putabit,” Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 16: “neglegentior in patrem,” Just. 32, 3, 1: “in quem omnes intenderat curas,” Curt. 3, 1, 21: “quos ardere in proelia vidi,...


6

The best list to memorize before reading each chapter of LLPSI is this: Seriously, you heard wrong. The whole point of Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata is to learn each word from context. It's called "the natural method" because it teaches Latin the way you learn your native language (just faster and more streamlined): from context, always from context, ...


6

The pelican as a symbol for Christ is extremely old, going back (at least) to the Physiologus, which is usually dated to the 2nd century AD (though some scholars have argued that it was composed in the 4th century). Here, the pelican is said to feed its young with its own blood: it's not hard to see why this was considered a fitting symbol of Christ's death ...


6

The full sentence, which includes scribal abbreviations, is somewhat different. Here is a transcription of the whole thing, with emendations and additions in bold: Alia vero multo luculentius eum quid est nobis ostendunt, nempe formicae, apes, fibri, canis, milleque huius generis industria sibi ingenita creatoris sapientiam, quamquam muta, praedicare ...


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