Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect.
Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...
As an adjective, indeed, medius, -a, -um does not take a genitive. However, there is a noun, the substantive medium, -i, which also means "middle" or "midst." Referring to a physical space, it's fairly common during the Augustan era and later, and, yes, it can take a genitive. Compare this passage of Livy 37.13.10:
insidiis medio ferme ...
Allecto, one of the Furies, is commonly associated with dark colours and snakes (see Pauly–Wissowa on the Furies). Furies often have snake hair too, and snakes are often blue; they don't look like ordinary women. So Allecto took a snake from her dark-blue snake hair.
Caerulus can mean "dark" as an epithet to words like death and rain, but Lewis &...
Grammatically, the subject must be the bough, because qui, the relative pronoun that refers to ramum, is nominative.
In the clause 'which she was hiding', 'which' is the direct object; so the relative pronoun would have to be accusative (quem). In addition, the verb would have to be transitive, which lateo isn't; it doesn't take a direct object (except in ...
The relevant passage is this one, from Aeneid IV.462-3:
sōlaque culminibus fērālī carmine būbo
saepe quer' et longās in flētum dūcere vōcēs
And the lone owl on the rooftops would cry out its mournful song, drawing out its long calls into an elegy.
I can see a few possible reasons why Vergil chose to make this particular būbo a feminine one:
As a first point, you are certainly not the first person to recognize this. I found a delightful little poem composed in the 19th century by a certain Piré that uses this same word-play:
Omnia Vincit Amor
Omnia vincit amor; non est hoc simplice sensu
Verum; cura duplex nascitur inde tibi:
Vincere scit telis, roseis vincire catenis;
Utcumque accipias, omnia ...
Fascinating question! I've found some editions of the Aeneid with these extra lines included, and some (most) without.
It seems that they aren't found in any of the oldest manuscripts of the Aeneid (except where one commentator scribbled them in the margin much later). Instead, they're first mentioned by the grammarian Aelius Donatus, who wrote in his Vita ...
Negative future imperatives do indeed exist.
A great many can be found in the laws of twelve tables.
Hominem mortuum in urbe ne sepelito
Do not bury a dead person in the city
Judging by these examples, the syntax is simply ne + future imperative.
I am not sure if memento should be semantically treated as a future imperative.
It is a future ...
English is unhelpful here, as "hide" can be transitive or intransitive. However, the verb lateo, latere is intransitive. It doesn't mean to hide something, but rather to lie hidden or to be hidden. It's intransitive, and thus does not take a direct object.
If you want the verb to hide as in to conceal, you'd want to use instead something like celo, celare ...
ACC.PL. is fĕrĕntīs.
The final syllable is superheavy, i.e. it consists of three morae.
FYI, the latest Teubner edition of Aeneis (Conte 2009) uses "ferentis", and so does Mynors 1969:
aut aliquis latet error: equo ne credite, Teucri.
quidqud id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis.’
sic fatus ualidis ingentem uiribus hastam
(II 48-50, p. 34)
The name Parthenope originally refers to a Siren who killed herself after failing to attract Odysseus/Ulysses and his men with her songs. She threw herself into the sea and drowned, and her body washed ashore (see The Roman Paratext: Frame, Texts, Readers).
The locals who settled in the area where her body washed ashore, the Cumaeans, decided to name their ...
I believe it is also used in prose with certain words, like deum and virum, although it is indeed less common. Livius, Ab Urbe Condita V 14.4:
... pestilentiam agris urbique [esse] inlatam haud dubia ira deum, quos pestis eius arcendae causa placandos esse in libris fatalibus inuentum sit; ...
"...by/through the undoubted ire of the gods, whom in order ...
Yes, I would by all means supply est. The phrase fas est is a fixed combination either introducing an a.c.i. or governing a complementary/supplementary infinitive plus the latter's arguments. The est can be omitted, as in similar constructions. I would analyse this fas est as having a primary dative complement nulli casto and a infinitival phrase as a ...
Looking at it, I don't think me is ablative; it's more likely an accusative as the subject of an indirect statement with credere. Discessu here is not a supine, but a fourth-declension noun, discessus.
The translated line should actually be:
Nor did I believe that I in my departure would ever have caused you so much pain.
(Apologies for the tenses.)
It's definitely long, because the vowel of that i-stem acc. pl. ending, -īs, is always long, as any good grammar will tell you. (If the form was gen. sg., of course, it would be short, but that doesn't work in this line.)
First, let us check all vowel lengths:
tŭm vērō ĕxŏrĭtŭr clāmŏr rīpaequĕ lăcūsquĕ
A syllable with a short vowel can be long (by position).
The standard assumption is that all possible elisions happen, and that is the case here too.
There are two possibilities for a ...
Since the Virgil's passage in question happens to start with 'Tum' I have to contribute something...
(This is not an answer but I see no way of putting this as a comment due to formatting issues.)
There appears to be no clarity on the issue, so the chances of getting a clear, authoritative answer are actually slim.
"The Royal Grammar, Commonly Called ...
The full citation is: Duckworth, G. W. 1940. "Turnus as a Tragic Character." Vergilius 4: 5-17. This is the fourth volume of the journal and was published in 1940.
It seems the article is not available online. Vergilius took a hiatus (or had a different name?), and you're right that it's not on JSTOR. There's a collection of the early volumes on Google ...
The name Ĭūlus is trisyllabic. It's listed as such in dictionaries, e.g. L&S, and there's ample metrical evidence for this, though much of it is indirect.
A search for forms of Iūlus in the Aeneid finds that it never occurs at the beginning of a line -- in fact, it's almost always line-final, as in the line you quote. This itself is suspicious since if ...
The second supine (ending with -u) can only be combined with adjectives, or with fas and nefas. Examples:
iucundum cognitu atque auditu
nefas est dictu
A second supine verb never has an object, but it can have a subject, for example pleraque faciliora sunt dictu quam factu.
Regarding the question in the title, Lewis and Short (seemingly this community's favorite dictionary) lists among the meanings of inde the following: from that time, thenceforward, since, after that, thereafter, thereupon, then. Just in case, there is the same entry on other dictionary. The same idea applies to unde.
Relative pronouns/adverbs that mark ...
@Cerberus is right that it does appear in prose in limited circumstances. In addition to deum and virum, genitive plurals of second declension nouns denoting money or measure often end in -um:
Nam cum fere constaret, curriculum stadii quod est Pisis apud Jovem Olympium Herculem pedibus suis metatum [esse] idque fecisse longum pedes sescentos, cetera ...
I found this is the Cambridge University Library catalogue:
Other Entries: Vergilian Society.
Published: Atlanta, GA: Vergilian Society, 1956-
Publication history: Began with vol. 1, (1956).
Description: ill ; 23 cm.
Notes: Supersedes Vergilius, no. 1-6, 1938-40.
Continues The Vergilian Digest, 1956-58.
Published by the ...
Your second translation is pretty close to the mark. Let's go through the translation step by step.
Let us first recall to mind the context: Dido has just finished a long harangue (4:305-330) excoriating Aeneas for attempting to leave her in secret. Aeneas is grieved and silent, and then...
Tandem pauca refert
At last he spoke these few words
Although you ...
The reference from Virgil is to Aeneid XII, 46, aegrescitque medendo (in the combat between Aeneas and Turnus).
The opposite is easily and exactly rendered as convalescit medendo. There may not be a positive attestation, but use of the verb is well supported.
Perseus offers two English translations of Aeneid, including your passage.
Theodore C. Williams, 1910, writes:
Arise, Out of my dust, unknown Avenger, rise!
John Dryden writes:
Rise some avenger of our Libyan blood
They both take poetic license in expressing the same idea.
The word os indeed means only bones, not ashes.
The point is not taking it ...
You might enjoy Dryden's famous — but magnificently erratic — translation, completed in 1697 :
. . . and thus at length replies, / "Fair Queen, you never can enough repeat / Your boundless favours, or I own my debt, / Nor can my mind forget Eliza's (!) name, / While vital breath inspires this mortal frame. / . . .
The whole translation tends to be ...
In addition to Cerberus' answer, I would rather make the following slicing:
fas [est] nulli casto
insistere limen sceleratum
As far as I know, it is very common to omit esse in Latin: e.g. some lines before your quotation you can read Quæ scelerum facies? (What shapes of crime are here? v. 560).
The first vowel in vero is long, the second vowel of vero is elided away, and the first syllable of exoritur is long by position (because 'x' counts as two consonants since it's pronounced 'ks'). You seem to have the remainder correct. So it starts with a spondee, and all elisions occur.
It's worth noting that you can deduce from the meter that the first ...
What your question really seems to be about is whether inde can serve as a subordinate conjunction, like dum, cum, etc., introducing a subordinate clause, to be translated as "when" or "while". You ask this, because you feel that a conjunction is needed to link the two lines.
If you look at the link to Lewis & Short above, you will see that inde (unlike ...