15

As an adjective, indeed, medius, -a, -um does not take a genitive. However, there is a noun, the substantive medium, -i, which also means "middle" or "midst." Referring to a physical space, it's fairly common during the Augustan era and later, and, yes, it can take a genitive. Compare this passage of Livy 37.13.10: insidiis medio ferme ...


14

To add a little context to the current answer, the name "Jacob" in the New Testament has two distinct forms: Ἰάκωβος/Iacobus, which is declinable Ἰακώβ/Iacob, which is indeclinable Iacobus is used to refer to the apostle James, while Iacob refers to the Old Testament patriarch Jacob. I'm not sure why the two names were distinguished this way, ...


13

Based on the Latin text provided, Sicilia (“Sicily”) would be in apposition with insula (“island”), and both would be declined in the same case—in this case, nominative. Clara (“famous”) would be the predicate adjective (or subject complement) of the subject insula. The translation would be, “The island Sicily is famous.” This idea could also be expressed ...


13

A genitive would indicate a relationship of dependency or subordination between the genitive noun and the other noun. But the island is Sicily. There's no dependency; the two nouns are just different terms for the same thing. Latin doesn't typically use a genitive for expressions such as 'the island of Sicily' or 'the city of Rome.' Instead, it tends to ...


12

All forms of se, including suus, normally refer to the subject of the main clause of the sentence. Eius, however, normally does not refer to this subject, but to someone else. So the two words have different meanings. Sextus Tarquinius crudelis est. Lucretia praevidet mortem suam. "S.T. is cruel. Lucretia foresees her own death." Sextus Tarquinius ...


12

It's the other way around, actually: Latin lost this -s, and Greek retained it! In older Latin, and fossilized phrases like pater familiās "father of the household", you see the genitive singular in -ās. The standard explanation I've seen for this change is influence from the second declension (-us -ī). The second declension in Latin originally had ...


11

Possessive is different from "owning." The master owns the house (presumably), but the house has a master. It possesses a master, but it doesn't "own" it. Ownership is a legal thing, whereas the genitive case describes a grammatical relationship, and you'll see it in places where ownership makes no sense, like "for the love of money&...


10

Roundly, the ablative is used for price and the genitive for value. The ablative of price occurs with verbs of acquiring, buying, selling etc., as in mensam quadraginta sestertiis emit. As well as specific forms there are, of course, general ablatives of price such as magno, parvo, vili. The genitive of value (quanti, tanti, plurimi, nihili etc.), as you ...


10

It's valid even in Classical Latin, in fact! Generally, it's fine to put two nouns together in the nominative (or, rather, in the same case) when one of them gives the general category of a thing and the other gives the name of a specific instance. For example, Caesar often talks about provincia Gallia, and Cicero uses constructions like C. Gallus senator. ...


9

Your syntax is correct. You can combine as many genitives as you wish in a similar fashion. For choosing between et and -que, see the question about that choice. I think et is more appropriate here. To improve your translation, I would put est all the way at the end: Minerva dea sapientiae et lanae est. Besides being more natural word order in Latin, it ...


9

First, this is not specific to ecclesiastical Latin. The same genitive is there in classical Latin as well. The verb miserere is used impersonally. It means roughly "to distress" or "to excite pity". For example, me miseret means "I am distressed". The reason of distress or the target of pity is indicated by genitive: me miseret Marci means "I pity Marcus". ...


9

Leumann (p. 421) mentions two cases: spoken gen.pl. drachmum and amphorum; in dactylic poetry, four-syllable masculine nouns, besides the regular forms, could also have gen.pl. in -um, mostly compounds with -cola and -gena (e.g. agricolum in Lucr. 4.586 or caelicolum; Troiugenum), and some Greek proper nouns (Gangaridum, Aeneadum, Phaselitum). The ...


9

As a general rule, groups containing both men and women take the masculine in Latin. For example, a male friend is an amīcus (masculine), and a female friend is an amīca (feminine). But a group of friends of mixed genders will always be amīcī, masculine plural. However, family names were a bit different in Roman times: they didn't quite have equivalents for ...


9

You have it backwards. The sigma is original. From Sihler 263.7: Gen.sg. PIE *-es, *-os, *-s are all attested forms of the gen.sg. marker and all three would yield much the same results in the historically attested IE languages when added to the stem *-eH2-. Most authorities assume a full grade form, and G ending-accented forms in *-ᾱς, Att.-Ion. *-ης, are ...


8

Singular genitive and dative forms of vis exist but are very rare, according to the Gaffiot, which provides some examples: Or in Calonghi: So it may be possible to use those forms when needed (vis and vi).


8

Here’s a summary of what most authoritative Latin grammars say on the genitive singular ending of –io stems (Weiss 2009/2011: 222-223; Leumann 1977: 424-425; Sihler ). For the sake of simplicity and consistency, in my answer I use the periodization of Latin as used in Weiss (which is different from, for instance, Clackson and Horrocks or Meiser). Weiss has ...


8

You are correct. In this case, the "of" is simply an English idiom. "The island of Sicily" and "the island Sicily" and even "Sicily the island" are all different ways to get the same meaning; the first just sounds more natural. Of can have quite a few different meanings in English, some of which don't align well with the Latin genitive. One good test is to ...


8

You are confusing gĕnu, -ūs ("knee") and gĕnus, -ĕris ("origin, lineage, stock"). The latter is a 3rd declension neuter noun, so the accusative singular is the same as the nominative singular. Hence, to fill in the blank: Augustus affirmed that his lineage had arisen from Jupiter.


8

Another use of the genitive that you've left out is subjective genitive, which is what this is. These are discussed in, e.g., Gildersleeve and Lodge, Latin grammar §363. Allen and Greenough, New Latin grammar §243, Note 1 treats them, not unreasonably, as a species of possessive genitive (where what is 'owned' is an action or state of being). Death implies ...


8

The name Jacob not a Latin or Greek name and it is not clear how one should decline it to other cases like the genitive. The choice made with many biblical names that do not fit pre-existing patterns is to treat them as undeclinable. The nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and vocative are all Jacob. Thus in this context Jacob is indeed a ...


8

Adding to Cerberus's answer, an "attributive noun" is not the same thing as an appositive noun/apposition. Latin has apposition; it does not have attributive nouns. An attributive noun would be a noun used like muscle in the English phrase muscle pain, which refers to pain of a type that is associated with muscles. You can't use the nominative form ...


7

Bennett gives gen. alterius, dat. aliī. Allen and Greenough list alius among the adjectives that "have the Genitive Singular in -īus and the Dative in -ī in all genders", implying alīus, aliī, but add in notes that "Instead of alīus, alterīus is commonly used" and that "The regular genitive and dative forms (as in bonus) are sometimes found in some of these ...


7

Since you mention "curriculum vitae", I assume you're focusing on metaphorical rather than physical uses, and on a name for something (rather than using it in a sentence)? When talking about ideas rather than physical objects, it's not uncommon to put the possession in the singular and the possessor in the plural. Consider: Suetonius' De Vitā Caesārum "on ...


7

Edgar H. Sturtevant's dissertation "Contraction in the case forms of the Latin io- and ia stems, and of deus, is, and idem" (1902) seems to have some relevant info, although I don't know if more has been discovered since then. Contraction in the genitive singular Sturtevant starts out by summarizing the genitive singular forms: he says that in ...


7

I believe it is also used in prose with certain words, like deum and virum, although it is indeed less common. Livius, Ab Urbe Condita V 14.4: ... pestilentiam agris urbique [esse] inlatam haud dubia ira deum, quos pestis eius arcendae causa placandos esse in libris fatalibus inuentum sit; ... "...by/through the undoubted ire of the gods, whom in order ...


7

Grammatically it should be the first—homo and intraturus enclose mundi, and therefore the genitive belongs to them. This is a very common way of showing relationships between dependent words. However, if it is true that Linnaeus meant the latter, then I'd offer that this isn't the best Latin. The A1B2A2B1 structure doesn't feel like proper Latin. This sort ...


7

The second translation is indeed superior. This is mostly based on context: theatrum mundi makes more sense than homo mundi. Judging by word order alone suggests that mundi modifies homo, so word order is not enough to convey the difference between your two interpretations. Grammar allows both interpretations, and grammar alone is not enough to decide which ...


7

Writing a letter to someone does fit the description you mentioned. It has to travel physically to the recipient. Famous collections of letters usually use ad in their titles. We might understand this as implying "sent to" or "to be sent to." Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, ad Atticum Seneca, Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium On the other hand, within the ...


7

Many pronouns have this kind of genitive form Genitives in -ius exist for a fairly small number of Latin words. I'm not sure of the exact amount. I would say that the stems that take this kind of genitive form constitute a "closed class", although there a\number of derived pronouns that inherit the inflection pattern of the base pronoun (e.g. ...


7

In addition to Draconis's good examples, for linguistic reference, this is normally called apposition: Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side and so one element identifies the other in a different way. The two elements are said to be in apposition, and one of the elements is called the ...


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