We know that meter existed because Aristotle in his Poetics flatly tells us so. Moreover, we have quite a bit of testimony from ancient grammarians like Quintilian and Victorinus, whose work on meters is most informative.
We also have poets' own words about their meters, such as Catullus mentioning his hendecasyllabi or Ovid writing aobut how Cupid stole a ...
The C is a -que.
It is quite common to abbreviate neque (= ne+que) as nec.
I see two ways to parse that verse and interpret the C:
And he noticed the goddess and said: "Don't go further!"
And he noticed the goddess, said: "And don't go further!"
(I didn't read around that verse, so the translation may not be optimal. But that's beside the point.)
To my knowledge, the compounds of jaciō are the only words where this complication occurs. And in Imperial Latin, these words frequently scan with a light initial syllable, indicating loss of /j/ and resyllabification of the final consonant of the prefix, such as /a.bi.ki.oː/.
Scholars of Latin seem to differ somewhat in how they explain the heavy scansion ...
Ah, the joys of scansion! My understanding of the subject is solid but very basic, so I'll give you what I know, in the hope that somebody else can elaborate.
The Caesura in Ancient Poetry
The basic unit of Latin poetry is the foot: iamb, trochee, dactyl, anapest, spondee, amphibrach. A line of dactylic hexameter is made up of six dactyls (a long syllable ...
There is a little-known rule of epic scansion in which, optionally, a word-initial sonorant (the nasals μ ν and the liquids ρ λ) may cause a preceding short vowel to scan long. Here's another example, Odyssey 18.399:
μνηστῆρες δ᾽ ὁμάδησαν ἀνὰ μέγαρα σκιόεντα
-- where the second syllable of ἀνά scans long because of the following μ-.
The explanation for ...
iambus: light + heavy
pyrrhicus: light + light
creticus: heavy + light + heavy
dactylus: heavy + light + light
Brevis Brevians is a tendency in early Latin, first attested in early metric poetry, to reduce the length of the second syllable of iambic words, resulting in a pyrrhic word. The same principle applies if the word is a cretic, which ...
After posting the negative answer below, I found one possible example: quă used as the feminine nominative singular or neuter nominative/accusative plural of the indefinite pronoun or determiner quis "any(one)". This form is listed in Bennett (91.), Allen and Greenough 149, Schmitz 1849. Gaffiot explicitly marks quă with a short vowel, which ...
Some names were indeed adapted to the meter. For example, in Homer, Achilles' name can be spelled with one or two λ depending on whether a heavy or light syllable is necessary.
The first line of the Iliad spells the name as Ἀχιλῆος (genitive of Ἀχιλεύς) in order to fit a meter of uu--:
μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
A few lines later (Iliad 1.7), ...
As often with tricky verses, the key is in the name.
The only way I can scan that right is reading the name as Ĭ-ā-sŏ-nĭs.
The initial I/J of a name can easily vary between vowel and consonant in poetry, but in this case Lewis and Short do give precisely the same reading I got.
The first syllable of Iason goes into the fourth foot and makes it a dactyl ...
Just to make it clear what Joonas said explained in his post, here is the line scanned out:
nempĕ tĕ/nens, quŏd ă/mo || grĕmĭ/oqu' in ĭ/asŏnĭ/s haerens
The reason the initial letter of Iason is a vowel is because it's not Latin at all: it's Greek, from Ἰάσων, and ancient Greek did not have a separate [j] phoneme (though Allen says that it was ...
There's not much literature on this subject -- maybe because synizesis is so rare. Aside from the obvious answer of "whenever the meter requires it", I couldn't find any hard-and-fast rules, just hints.
However, from what I could find, it's particularly common in...
the initial ea- and -eo of eadem and eodem.
words ending in -ea and -eo
the eu, ei and ea ...
No, unfortunately it does not quite scan right.
Here are the problems I found:
The second syllable of the first line, -nōs, is long for two reasons: the vowel is long and followed by two consonants.
The o in sc(h)ola is short, so the first syllable is metrically short even though it has stress in prose.
I'm not quite sure how you intended to scan the ...
Sorry, but this does not scan correctly.
First, the meter in your first line is missing a beat in your description, though, it's there I see in the line itself.
The o in annos is long by position, because it is followed by two consonants. Same with the u in virumque.
qui is elided before ab.
The a in probationem is long, as is the second o. The makes the ...
The literature that I've viewed so far suggests that in Plautine Latin, forms like domust for domus est could be found, but not forms like dom'et for domus et.
Terence and the Verb 'To Be' in Latin, by Giuseppe Pezzini (2015), describes -us est → -ust as (in at least some time periods) a special contraction belonging to est, rather than an example of regular ...
In many Greek meters there's a rule by which a long syllable can be replaced with two shorts ("resolution"). This is what has happened with προσεκύνει in this line: the first two short syllables count as one long. Dividing the line into feet we get
θεῶν ἀλη|θῶς προσεκύνει | τε κἀτίμα
where the metrical scheme is
˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯
Hoc is always scanned long in classical poetry, because it is the same as *hocc (from *hocce < *hodce). I give only a couple of examples, but you can check by yourself using http://www.pedecerto.eu/ricerca/forma. It is the same for the other words formed with the intensifying particle -ce, like istuc (from *istucce < *istudce) or illuc (from *illucce &...
The Saturnian was (probably) stress-based, not weight-based.
To borrow from another answer of mine:
In a question about Old Latin meters, an anonymous user brought
up Mercado's convincing argument that the Saturnian was based on
accent. The idea isn't new, but Mercado backs it up with some nice
information-theoretical analysis: basically, the ...
It appears this phenomenon is not unique to the O interjection. The The Elements of Latin Grammar, etc p.175 notes:
Ah, O, hei, heu, pro, si, vae, vah, and also most other monosyllables are seldom elided
A Copious Latin Grammar p.383, is more restrictive in his list (and specifically mentions "interjections" rather than any monosyllabel), but he ...
Dickinson has an excellent resource for beginners:
They've been hard at work at getting a lot of resources for students on their website, like Allen and Greenough.
One resource I've long used is Rudy Negenborn's Catullus site, where, besides including different translations, he has all of Catullus scanned, too.
There are really two senses of "caesura", one of them objectively definable, the other not so much.
Most basically, a caesura is defined simply as any word break in the line that occurs within a foot, rather than at a foot boundary. (The opposite of a caesura is a diaeresis, which is a word break that corresponds to a foot boundary.) In this sense ...
As a supplement to qwertxyz's answer, which gives the correct scansion, I'll note that this line fits into the scheme described in D.S. Raven, Latin metre §66:
The 'weak' third foot caesura is far less common in Latin than in Greek ... [I]n the most developed type of hexameter verse ... it is nearly always combined with 'strong' caesura in the fourth foot ...
Yes, that is absolutely correct!
You have identified the long and short syllables correctly, and from that the scansion follows.
To be sure, it is always good to check that the pattern fits the metre and there is a natural place for at least one caesura.
Once these all check out, your scansion is usually right.
Lobel and Page (1963) include fragments 92-99 into ΜΕΛΩΝ Ε - note the question marks throughout pp. 74-83 for all those fragments though.
Greek metrics could give you a strong headache (see e.g. West 1982); luckily, Eva-Maria Voigt did all the work for us - see her Conspectus Metrum for Book 5 below (Voigt 1971: 20):
Asynarteton (plural: asynarteta) is ...
To me the most natural positions for caesuras in hendecasyllabic verse are before either of the consequent short syllables: - - - | u | u - u - u - u.
This is similar to how caesuras work in hexameter, never coinciding with with the start of a metron.
My preference for reading caesuras like this may have well been influenced by reading hexameter.
But, more ...