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27

The origin of ordinal names seems to be unknown, but one theory dating back to Varro is that ordinal praenomen were originally used for children based on the month in which they were born (a custom which is however not attested in the historical period). You can find more details in this blog post by Peter Gainsford: "Why are there no Romans named ‘...


26

Proper names aren't always translated in common speech. Plenty of Hebrew names were left without endings in the Latin translation of the Bible (and Greek as well, it should be noted). But if you wanted to inflect Disney, we could find similar-sounding names. For example, 'Maccabee' in Latin was Maccabaeus, so we could plausibly have Disnaeus, or maybe even ...


20

I searched for the vocative form Gnaee in several corpora but did not find any results. A general web search seems to reveal only automatically generated vocatives, which I would not lend much credence to, as well as the excellent 16th century example cited by @JoelDerfner in Juan Luis Vives's De Initiis Sectis Et Laudibus Philosophiae. The two alternatives ...


18

I have another entry for this exhibit that answers your question with a resounding yes. Enter Plautus, in the Menaechmi, with three verbs derived from proper names in his prologue: Atque hoc poetae faciunt in comoediis: omnis res gestas esse Athenis autumant, quo illud vobis graecum videatur magis; ego nusquam dicam nisi ubi factum dicitur. ...


16

The phrase you quote has words in the vocative case. Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe The vocative case is used for address. That is, O Lord, only begotten son, Jesus Christ The particle O underscores this fact, that the phrase is in the form of address. On the other hand, Iesus is in the nominative case. The nominative case is used for the subject of ...


16

It is of the first declension, but not of the most typical kind. I would divide the first declension into four classes: Case (Feminine) A-type Masculine A-type Feminine E-type Masculine E-type Nominative -a -ās -ē -ēs Accusative -am -am/-ān -ēn -ēn Genitive -ae -ae -ēs -ae Dative -ae -ae -ae -ae Ablative -ā -ā -ē -ē Vocative -a -ā -ē -ē The last ...


14

'Why' isn't usually a good question for these types of things, because the answer is often "just because." The Greek isn't typical, but it does have a parallel with o-contracted words like νοῦς, περίπλους, or (neuter) κανοῦν. Nominative Ἰησοῦς νοῦς Genitive Ἰησοῦ νοῦ Dative Ἰησοῖ/Ἰησοῦ νῷ Accusative Ἰησοῦν νοῦν Vocative ...


14

A number of Greek names ending in -ō have both Latin and Greek style declensions. For example:   Greek Latin nom. Dīdō Dīdō acc. Dīdō Dīdōnem gen. Dīdūs Dīdōnis dat. Dīdō Dīdōnī abl. Dīdō Dīdōne One would indeed expect the typical Latin form Ionem, but Io is valid as well. The context is fortunately clear enough so that we can be confident that Io is ...


13

N.N. is still used in Spanish and some other languages. It comes from nomen nescio. Although it is not a name, it is actually used as if it were. Also, according to this, Numerius Negidius was used "in jurisprudence in ancient Rome (...) specifically to refer to the defendant in a hypothetical lawsuit", and was an intentional wordplay to fit N.N. See also: ...


13

For unfamiliar words, it never hurts to check the dictionary. Here is what Lewis and Short have: Īō, Iūs, and Īōn , Iōnis, f., = Ἰώ, I.a daughter of Inachus, king of Argos, beloved by Jupiter, and changed, through fear of Juno, into a cow; afterwards worshipped as an Egyptian deity, under the name of Isis. —Form Io, Ov. H. 14, 85; Prop. 2, 28 (3, 24), 17; ...


12

Ancient Latin had no separate letter for the the vowel I and the consonant Y (J in German). They were both written as I. In Medieval Latin, though, a development took place that differentiated between the vowel I (written as I, i) and the consonant I (now written as J, j). There is no difference, then, between Iesus and Jesus in Latin. Jesu/Iesu, though, ...


11

It came to Latin from Hebrew (שָּׂטָן satan), through Greek (Σατανᾶς satanas) and means enemy, adversary. In Judaism and Christianity, it is also one of the names given to the devil, a supernatural creature that lead a rebelion against God and one of the main instigators of evil in the World. The -as ending is purely grammatical. As can be seen, it was ...


10

Eureka, as the scientist said. J. L. Vives, 16th century humanist, uses the vocative of Gnæus Pompeius in Pompeius Fugiens (page 136 of the Brill edition of his early writings, volume I). Brill spells it Gnæe, but the notes seem to indicate that one ms spells it Gnee and three others spell it Cnee.


10

I see two approaches here: the literal and the historical one. From a semantic point of view, your choice of words is mainly right, but as Joonas points, orbis means primarily something round, and its assocaition (and meaning change into European languages) with the whole World derives from the fact that its use with terrarum and terrae (the roundness of ...


10

The entry for Anna in Wiktionary certainly states that it derives from the Hebrew Hannah. And this is how Augustine uses it in The City of God against the Pagans, in book 17, when referring to Hannah, the mother of Samuel (mater quoque ipsa Samuelis Anna ...) However, there is the possibility that Anna is in fact a Latin name, based on the Roman goddess ...


10

The consistency of Greek spelling tends to hide the sound changes that happened within the language. Greek originally(*) had three different "o-like" sounds, written ο, ω, ου. Since they had only two "o-like" letters, they needed to use two letters together for the third one. The same thing happened with their three "e-like" sounds, ε, η, ει. It's thought ...


10

Plural place names should have plural verbs. A very simple case of this is Athenae, -arum (Athens). Here's an illuminating example from Cicero: in quam cum intueor, maxime mihi occurrunt, Attice, et quasi lucent Athenae tuae, qua in urbe primum se orator extulit primumque etiam monumentis et litteris oratio est coepta mandari. (Cicero, Brutus 7) ...


10

Martial wrote a poem about Publius' dog called Issa. It begins: Issa est passere nequior Catulli, Issa est purior osculo columbae, Issa est blandior omnibus puellis, Issa est carior Indicis lapillis, Issa est deliciae catella Publi. Issa is naughtier than Catullus’ sparrow, Issa is purer than a dove’s kiss, Issa is more winning than ...


9

The other answers are great, but let me try to show it in a slightly different way. In Latin, the word Jesus or Iesus (more on that later) has several different forms, as shown in a declension table like this one, reproduced below: Case Form nominative Iēsus genitive Iēsū dative Iēsū accusative Iēsum ablative ...


9

It seems there are two possible etymologies for the Occitan name Aloys, whose Latinisation gave rise to the form Aloysius: cognate with German Ludwig, from Germanic (Frankish) name, a compound of (h)lūt ("fame") + wīg ("warrior"). Dutch Lodewijk French Louis Spanish Luis English Lewis cognate with German Alwis, from Old High German al (...


9

I agree with Joonas Ilmavirta's answer in that you want to use tellus or terra along with mater. But I am not sure which word order is more idiomatic in Latin. (It's true Latin word order is relatively "free," but there are still tendencies towards using certain orders in set phrases.) A corpus search of "Classical Latin Texts" (prepared bt The Packard ...


9

The relevant entry in Smith's Copious & Critical English-Latin reads "gipsy: Cingarus, Zingarus, f. -a :after their Italian name Zingari, The Gipsies, *Aegypti qui feruntur." That seems quite acceptable to me. However, since there is no classical precedent, I should think that you can please yourself on this. My own preferred word is gitanus, which in a ...


9

In Petronius, Satyricon 64, Trimalchio's favorite, Croesus, has an 'indecently fat black puppy' (catellam nigram atque indecenter pinguem) named Margarita, which means 'pearl', and Trimalchio himself has a dog, the 'bulwark of the house and household' (praesidium domus familiaeque) named Scylax, which is Greek for 'young dog' or 'puppy'. In the meantime, ...


9

"World" is mundus, so "Disney World" would be mundus Disneyi or Disneyi mundus (both mean literally "the World of Disney", the word order doesn't matter). Of course you'd have to properly inflect mundus when using the phrase, so it would be mundi in the genitive, and mundum in the accusative.


8

Stephen Wilson's The Means of Naming provides insight into the naming of Roman public slaves. His discussion touches on the sources of personal names and names of slaves owned privately, but also includes treatment of the naming of the servus publicus. First, he notes that the phrase servus publicus, or part of it, was often part of their name: Public ...


8

Why do so many forms of this name exist? While modern usage prefers to translate names to an original or etymological form, it was once a more common practice to Latinize names with little change other than moving it into a declension. Thus, many forms of the name exist because the name is found in many forms across the languages of Europe. (This in turn ...


8

The name Parthenope originally refers to a Siren who killed herself after failing to attract Odysseus/Ulysses and his men with her songs. She threw herself into the sea and drowned, and her body washed ashore (see The Roman Paratext: Frame, Texts, Readers). The locals who settled in the area where her body washed ashore, the Cumaeans, decided to name their ...


8

I don’t know how far you want to stretch your definition of classical Latin, but Christianizo is used by Tertullian, and Judaizo in the Vulgata.


8

I actually just spent a week with a bunch of living Latinists one of whom was named Faber, so I can say that with context there's no question. However, "Faber" was not at all a Roman name, and I sort of feel like if you were transported back in time and said this, it would be like introducing yourself today to somebody as Ablacksmith. "Hi, I'm Ablacksmith." ...


8

Chantraîne suggests (tentatively, but with references) that it might be a hypocoristic of Ναυσικάστη. Robert Graves’s “Greek myths” is a work of imaginative literature. The etymologies proposed there need to be taken with a very large pinch of salt.


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