It's pretty much arbitrary.
There are some standard patterns: first-declension nouns tend to be feminine, second-declension masculine/neuter, third-declension abstract concepts, fourth-declension collectives and states, fifth-declension feminine. But there's an exception to each and every one of these rules.
Historically speaking, the declensions derived ...
A quick web search shows that the phrase 'Diabolus enim et alii Daemones' (without the contra) appears to originate from the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215). The full sentence is Diabolus enim et alii daemones a Deo quidem natura creati sunt boni, sed ipsi per se facti sunt mali, which I would translate as something like, 'For the Devil and other demons ...
Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect.
Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...
Yes, the grammar of this sentence is perfectly fine. It's a very simple sentence composed of subject, object and verb.
Subject: Sola dea - The subject needs to be nominative here. Remember that even though two Latin words may be translated with the same English words (so dea and deam are both translated "goddess"), that does not mean that ...
Christus Apostolos misit ... illis Evangelii nuntiandi praebens mandatum
Praebens is a participle modifying Christus: "Christ sent the apostles ... giving...". All the other words you marked depend on praebens.
The dative illis is the recipient of praebens: "giving them".
The neuter past participle mandatum is used as a noun and is the object of praebens: ...
Both are conjugated in the present tense, passive voice, and indicative mood, from the same verb: muto. The difference is that mutamur is conjugated in the 1st person (plural) (“we change”), while mutantur is conjugated in the 3rd person (plural) (“times change”).
Owen is quoting a well-known Latin adage meaning, “Times change, and we change with them.”
Your translation "he proved to them that completing these efforts was done very easily" is good.
To express such things in Latin the supine is a good choice.
The supine ablative (like factu) is an ablative of respect.
Hoc responsum facile est scriptu.
= This answer is easy with respect to writing.
= This answer is easy to write.
Futurum est is a future active periphrastic form. It is built from futurum, the future active participle of sum (here in the neuter), which by itself means "going to be, about to be". With the addition of est, it means "It is going to be", or in the translation you quote, "It will come to pass".
Sola dea is the subject, and the subject must be nominative.
Fatum is in the accusative, and not the nominative, and must be, since sola dea is in the nominative. It's the direct object, and the accusative is the case for direct objects. I think you just had your terminology mixed up.
Finally, novit is perfect, not infinitive, of noscere, which is the ...
In classical Latin, the ablative of comparatives could end on -i, although -e is probably more common. Here are a few quotations that I think must be conceded to contain ablatives:
Cornelius Nepos, Vitae Ca. 2.2.2:
… ibi cum diutius moraretur, P. Scipio Africanus consul iterum, cuius in priori consulatu quaestor fuerat, uoluit eum de prouincia depellere …...
Indeed, it means [he] eats; it is a contracted form. It's not very common, nor extremely rare. Lewis & Short even call it "very frequent", which I think is an exaggeration:
The contr. forms es, est, estis, etc., are very freq. in prose and poetry: "est", Vergil, Aeneid 4, 66; 5, 683; Horace, Satires 2, 2, 57
The present stem is persequ-: this can be found by removing -or from the end of the first person active singular persequor. It is a consonant stem, which gets an -e- in present participles: persequens. The same applies to the gerundive: persequendus.
The supine stem is persecut-: this can be found by removing -um from the end of the supine persecutum. The ...
Perfacile factu means "easy to do." Factu is a supine, and this construction—supines coming off of certain adjectives—is pretty much where you will always see its ablative form. Other common examples are:
Mirabile dictu, "Amazing to say";
Difficilis latu, "Difficult to bear";
Optimum factu, "Best [thing] to do;
Nefas dictu, "Unlawful to say".
With that in ...
The sentence, absent any context (could you provide some?), would ordinarily be translated
The Goddess alone knows [their, or his, or her, etc.] fate.
Let's break it down word by word:
Sola: Nominative singular, first declension, feminine; agreeing with dea.
dea: Nominative singular; it's the subject (in this case, the actor) of the sentence.
Here is the stub of an answer. Many conjunctions can be used in two or more different ways. And I've only given an example for each category, not an exhaustive list. But this should be enough for you to be able to categorise other conjunctions.
Copulative/Additive: connects two clauses without indicating any specific kind of relation between them: et.
I don't think there are any really clear uses in Greek; the elliptical dual is an archaic Indo-European construction which is no longer productive in Greek, and the elliptical interpretation of Αἴαντε (and the parallel Μολίονε) is based on the usage of other IE languages, mainly Sanskrit.
In Sanskrit, however, the usage is pretty clear. Basically, the idea ...
The word quod probably means 'therefore' (or 'in respect of which').
(My dictionary mentions this meaning but gives no examples.)
This would imply that Prometheus was dissatisfied with the situation described before the semicolon and therefore took action.
Another possibility is that quod is a relative pronoun referring to ignis.
That would make quod the ...
You have several excellent answers here. I just want to add a few words about C. M. Weimer's suggestion that scit might be better than novit.
Scire (scit) and noscere/novisse (novit), two Latin words for "know," have cognates in many Romance languages (perhaps all of them; certainly all those I'm familiar with): savoir/connaître in French, sapere/cognoscere ...
Ἐγγύα πάρα δ' ἄτη appears to have been a proverb; it is apparently quoted (see fn. 3) in a fragment of Cratinus, an Attic comic playwright (though Cratinus's version seems to have been different, ἑγγύα δ' ἄτας θυγάτηρ "a pledge is the daughter of recklessness"), and also in a fragment of Thales (scroll down to ἄτη II.2) in the Doric form ἐγγύα, πάρα δ' ἄτα. ...
A good question.
Assimilation (voice): * tagto > * takto. This is a common phenomenon,
cf. scribo-scripsi, veho-vixi etc. (see e.g. Weiss, p. 188, I.1);
With dico, there's nothing unusual: diksi, dikto;
With struo: k was inserted there analogically. Verbs ending in a
labiovelar (kw, gw) follow this pattern:
"the labial element of a labiovelar is ...
The form structum seems to have "c" by analogy to stems that had labiovelar consonants in Proto-Indo-European, as Alex B. says.
In frūctus (from fruor) the Indo-European present stem ended in a labio-velar gʷ, but various analogies no doubt account for strūctus, flūxus, old flūctus, uīctum (from struo, fluo, uīuo)
(Vox Latina, W. Sidney Allen, Second ...
Quae refers to sapientia.
This is a relative clause, and it (mostly) only makes sense if the relative pronoun refers to something mentioned before.
I'm not a native speaker, but I get the impression that English doesn't allow second person relative clauses like the one in the question: "Come here, you who do this and that."
I'm guessing you are confused ...
Unfortunately, you need to know both.
The declension of a noun determines what forms the noun itself takes. Since poēta "poet" is first declension, the nominative singular is poēta, the accusative singular is poētam, and the nominative plural is poētae.
The gender of a noun, on the other hand, determines what forms adjectives take to agree with it. Even ...
"Art for the Sake of Art"
This phrase, quite conveniently, uses the same word order in both English and Latin.
Ars, artis (artium) is a third-declension feminine noun. It can mean "art" in the sense of paintings and sculptures, but can also be more abstract, like the "art" of writing (i.e. the skill and experience required to be a good writer). Ars is the ...
They're all different uses! Different verbs will have different constructions, and you cannot, as a rule, ever do a one-to-one correspondence based on English's idioms. Take "take away," for example.
You actually have a couple of options depending on the thing you're taking away. Some words add on ex to the beginning of a verbalized noun, like exanimare "to ...
A relatively common construction in Latin is to use the verb curare.
If "I do this" is hoc facio, then "I have someone do this" is "hoc faciendum curo".
To my knowledge this construction is impersonal in the sense that you cannot indicate who you make do the job.
There is a way to indicate who has to do something, and it is called the passive periphrastic ...
Nocendo is a gerund (noun) here, not a gerundive (adjective). Therefore, it's active in meaning. It's ablative to show the means by which Juno does good. Quae is f. nom. sing. and refers to Iunonem, who is the 'I' of the relative clause.
...I who alone do good by doing harm
(Note that sola couldn't be the object of nocendo (or the agent, because nocendo, ...
When a verb and direct object are involved, the accusative is often referred to as a cognate accusative.
The more general term, which would also cover your afflictus...afflictione example, is figura etymologica.
Both are quite common in classical Latin – for example:
tutiorem vitam vivere (Cic. Verr. 2.118)
cura ut valeas meque ames amore illo tuo ...
This sort of figura etymologica is common in classical Latin and classical Greek, but even more so in Semitic languages (such as Hebrew and Arabic), where it has (among other things) the function of intensifying a statement. A good example is in Genesis 2:17 where מֹות תָּמוּת (mōϑ tāmūϑ) is rendered as θανάτῳ ἀποθανεῖσθε and morte morieris, all literally “...