13

We know that meter existed because Aristotle in his Poetics flatly tells us so. Moreover, we have quite a bit of testimony from ancient grammarians like Quintilian and Victorinus, whose work on meters is most informative. We also have poets' own words about their meters, such as Catullus mentioning his hendecasyllabi or Ovid writing aobut how Cupid stole a ...


10

The C is a -que. It is quite common to abbreviate neque (= ne+que) as nec. I see two ways to parse that verse and interpret the C: And he noticed the goddess and said: "Don't go further!" And he noticed the goddess, said: "And don't go further!" (I didn't read around that verse, so the translation may not be optimal. But that's beside the point.) The ...


8

The last syllable in proinde is short but the first one is not split in two. Correcting this makes the rest of the line scan naturally: Proindĕ, lĭ/cet quam/vīs ex / ūnō/quōquĕ lŏ/cō sōl The caesura seems to take place between quamvis and ex. I do not find a similarly suitable place for it ...


7

My source for this answer is A. Ernout, Morphologie historique du latin, Paris 1974. 1. orĭtur/orītur Verbs in -iō (originated by a well-known indo-european -ye/o- suffix attached directly to the verbal root) belong either to the third (ĭ) or the fourth (ī) conjugation, according to a set of rules: Monosyllabic radical, ī: sciō, scīre. After a long ...


7

First, let us check all vowel lengths: tŭm vērō ĕxŏrĭtŭr clāmŏr rīpaequĕ lăcūsquĕ A syllable with a short vowel can be long (by position). The standard assumption is that all possible elisions happen, and that is the case here too. There are two possibilities for a ...


6

The word "sŭŭs" is always counted as a sequence of two distinct vowels in latin hexameter, as you can see, for example, in Verg. georg. 4,190: In noctem, fessosque sopōr sŭŭs ōccŭpăt artus in Ov. ars 2,643: Nēc sŭŭs Andromedae color est obiectus ab illo and in Ov. met. 2,186, which has sŭūs just like your verse: Frēnă sŭūs rector, quam dis ...


6

Here's an example from Lucan's Bellum civile (8.321) where īt is used and ĭĭt would break the meter: nomen abit aut unde redi maiore triumpho? (8.321) The form abiit would produce three short syllabus in a row.


6

In scansion, a vowel is long by position if there are more than two consonants between it and the next vowel. This is the usual way of putting it, but it's inacccurate/misleading in a couple of ways. First, it's not really the vowel that is long by position; it's the syllable that is long, or in a different terminology, "heavy". (Linguists these days speak ...


5

It takes a long time to master Latin poetry, and a lot of practice in reading before you can attempt to write it. The metrical schemes are not hard to follow, but declaiming the poems as the classical poets intended is just about impossible, since we can only guess at the true sounds. The big difference from modern European, as you probably know, is that ...


5

The name Ĭūlus is trisyllabic. It's listed as such in dictionaries, e.g. L&S, and there's ample metrical evidence for this, though much of it is indirect. A search for forms of Iūlus in the Aeneid finds that it never occurs at the beginning of a line -- in fact, it's almost always line-final, as in the line you quote. This itself is suspicious since if ...


5

I don't know any reason why the first vowel of "lucubrando" would be short; I'd guess it might be an error. However, I was able to find some references that describe final o as often being treated as "common" (able to be long or short) for various words in various eras of poetry, and in particular in gerund. In Adam's Latin Grammar, by Alexander Adam, from ...


5

As a supplement to the above answer, here is a full transcription and translation of the dictionary entry: Haec honorificabilitas -tatis, et haec honorificabilitudinitas -tatis: Et haec est longissima dictio, ut patet scilicet in hoc versu: fulget honorificabilitudinitatibus iste Et corripit penultimam "honorifico" -tas. ...


5

No, unfortunately it does not quite scan right. Here are the problems I found: The second syllable of the first line, -nōs, is long for two reasons: the vowel is long and followed by two consonants. The o in sc(h)ola is short, so the first syllable is metrically short even though it has stress in prose. I'm not quite sure how you intended to scan the ...


5

Sorry, but this does not scan correctly. First, the meter in your first line is missing a beat in your description, though, it's there I see in the line itself. The o in annos is long by position, because it is followed by two consonants. Same with the u in virumque. qui is elided before ab. The a in probationem is long, as is the second o. The makes the ...


4

Hoc is always scanned long in classical poetry, because it is the same as *hocc (from *hocce < *hodce). I give only a couple of examples, but you can check by yourself using http://www.pedecerto.eu/ricerca/forma. It is the same for the other words formed with the intensifying particle -ce, like istuc (from *istucce < *istudce) or illuc (from *illucce &...


4

I think there is only one hexameter verse: Fulget hon/orifi/cabili/tudini/tatibus / iste. This contains a word even longer than the headword. It would not scan right without the addition of the dactylic -tudini-. I would translate it as "he shines in his honor(-related thing)". The following line does not seem to scan as a hexameter or pentameter, ...


3

Hoc There is indeed classical precedent to pronounce hoc as hocc. Velius Longus in De Orthographia 53 writes: At cum dicimus 'hic est ille', unum c scribimus et duo audimus, quod apparet in metro. Nam: Hoc erat alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignes eripis… (Aeneis 2.664–665) Si unum c hanc syllabam exciperet, ...


3

Synizesis of ee is supposed to occur in forms of the verb deesse. Presumably the result was [eː], with the same pronunciation as ē. This seems very similar to the contraction seen in words like dēbeo or dēmo. Evidence from poetry indicates that those imperfective forms of deesse ‘be missing, absent’ where the stem begins with [e] are contracted even if ...


3

The Saturnian was (probably) stress-based, not weight-based. To borrow from another answer of mine: In a question about Old Latin meters, an anonymous user brought up Mercado's convincing argument that the Saturnian was based on accent. The idea isn't new, but Mercado backs it up with some nice information-theoretical analysis: basically, the ...


3

It's a hiatus because it's located at the principle caesura: et vera | inces|su patu|it dea. || Ille ubi | matrem In fact, Lodge specifically references this line in the section on hiatus, as I'm sure do a few others. Note that hiatus isn't impossible anywhere, but it's common specifically here. The grammars will typically say "most" or "usually", and I'...


3

The first vowel in vero is long, the second vowel of vero is elided away, and the first syllable of exoritur is long by position (because 'x' counts as two consonants since it's pronounced 'ks'). You seem to have the remainder correct. So it starts with a spondee, and all elisions occur. It's worth noting that you can deduce from the meter that the first ...


2

Here are some remarks concerning the marked vowel lengths, caesuras, and scansion. Many of them are tangential to your actual question, but I hope they are useful. Most of the caesuras and macrons are correct; I hope my analysis does not come across as too negative for picking mistakes. First remarks: I should stress that my point of view is that of ...


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