14

We know that meter existed because Aristotle in his Poetics flatly tells us so. Moreover, we have quite a bit of testimony from ancient grammarians like Quintilian and Victorinus, whose work on meters is most informative. We also have poets' own words about their meters, such as Catullus mentioning his hendecasyllabi or Ovid writing aobut how Cupid stole a ...


12

The C is a -que. It is quite common to abbreviate neque (= ne+que) as nec. I see two ways to parse that verse and interpret the C: And he noticed the goddess and said: "Don't go further!" And he noticed the goddess, said: "And don't go further!" (I didn't read around that verse, so the translation may not be optimal. But that's beside the point.) The ...


10

Metric evidence is surprisingly hard to find. According to my corpus searches, almost all examples of quoniam in Vergil, Horace, and Catullus are in hexameter and not in the second last foot. I don't quite know why; I see no obstruction to having the word that late in a verse but it seems not to be found there. In these contexts both readings scan well. The ...


8

The last syllable in proinde is short but the first one is not split in two. Correcting this makes the rest of the line scan naturally: Proindĕ, lĭ/cet quam/vīs ex / ūnō/quōquĕ lŏ/cō sōl The caesura seems to take place between quamvis and ex. I do not find a similarly suitable place for it ...


8

Your scansion is entirely correct! There's just a misinterpretation of the answer. In this shorthand, "S" means a spondee (long-long) and "D" means a dactyl (long-short-short). So "SSDD" means long-long / long-long / long-short-short / long-short-short. The scansion of the whole line is: A̱tqu' ha̱e|c i̱mpre̱s|sō̱ ge̮mu̮|i̱t ...


7

First, let us check all vowel lengths: tŭm vērō ĕxŏrĭtŭr clāmŏr rīpaequĕ lăcūsquĕ A syllable with a short vowel can be long (by position). The standard assumption is that all possible elisions happen, and that is the case here too. There are two possibilities for a ...


7

My source for this answer is A. Ernout, Morphologie historique du latin, Paris 1974. 1. orĭtur/orītur Verbs in -iō (originated by a well-known indo-european -ye/o- suffix attached directly to the verbal root) belong either to the third (ĭ) or the fourth (ī) conjugation, according to a set of rules: Monosyllabic radical, ī: sciō, scīre. After a long ...


7

In scansion, a vowel is long by position if there are more than two consonants between it and the next vowel. This is the usual way of putting it, but it's inacccurate/misleading in a couple of ways. First, it's not really the vowel that is long by position; it's the syllable that is long, or in a different terminology, "heavy". (Linguists these days speak ...


7

As often with tricky verses, the key is in the name. The only way I can scan that right is reading the name as Ĭ-ā-sŏ-nĭs. The initial I/J of a name can easily vary between vowel and consonant in poetry, but in this case Lewis and Short do give precisely the same reading I got. The first syllable of Iason goes into the fourth foot and makes it a dactyl ...


6

I don't know any reason why the first vowel of "lucubrando" would be short; I'd guess it might be an error. However, I was able to find some references that describe final o as often being treated as "common" (able to be long or short) for various words in various eras of poetry, and in particular in gerund. In Adam's Latin Grammar, by Alexander Adam, from ...


6

It takes a long time to master Latin poetry, and a lot of practice in reading before you can attempt to write it. The metrical schemes are not hard to follow, but declaiming the poems as the classical poets intended is just about impossible, since we can only guess at the true sounds. The big difference from modern European, as you probably know, is that ...


6

The name Ĭūlus is trisyllabic. It's listed as such in dictionaries, e.g. L&S, and there's ample metrical evidence for this, though much of it is indirect. A search for forms of Iūlus in the Aeneid finds that it never occurs at the beginning of a line -- in fact, it's almost always line-final, as in the line you quote. This itself is suspicious since if ...


6

The word "sŭŭs" is always counted as a sequence of two distinct vowels in latin hexameter, as you can see, for example, in Verg. georg. 4,190: In noctem, fessosque sopōr sŭŭs ōccŭpăt artus in Ov. ars 2,643: Nēc sŭŭs Andromedae color est obiectus ab illo and in Ov. met. 2,186, which has sŭūs just like your verse: Frēnă sŭūs rector, quam dis ...


6

Here's an example from Lucan's Bellum civile (8.321) where īt is used and ĭĭt would break the meter: nomen abit aut unde redi maiore triumpho? (8.321) The form abiit would produce three short syllabus in a row.


6

The first option is correct. Together, they scan like so: –⏑⏑/––/–‖–/–⏑⏑/–⏑⏑/–– –⏑⏑/–⏑⏑/–‖–/––/–⏑⏑/–x And applying that to the lines themselves, they look like this when broken up into metrical feet. flumina / iam lac- / -tis || iam / flumina / nectaris / ibant, flavaque / de viri- / -di stil- / -labant / ilice / mella. De is in fact long, which the ...


6

Just to make it clear what Joonas said explained in his post, here is the line scanned out: nempĕ tĕ/nens, quŏd ă/mo || grĕmĭ/oqu' in ĭ/asŏnĭ/s haerens The reason the initial letter of Iason is a vowel is because it's not Latin at all: it's Greek, from Ἰάσων, and ancient Greek did not have a separate [j] phoneme (though Allen says that it was ...


5

As a supplement to the above answer, here is a full transcription and translation of the dictionary entry: Haec honorificabilitas -tatis, et haec honorificabilitudinitas -tatis: Et haec est longissima dictio, ut patet scilicet in hoc versu: fulget honorificabilitudinitatibus iste Et corripit penultimam "honorifico" -tas. Translation: ...


5

No, unfortunately it does not quite scan right. Here are the problems I found: The second syllable of the first line, -nōs, is long for two reasons: the vowel is long and followed by two consonants. The o in sc(h)ola is short, so the first syllable is metrically short even though it has stress in prose. I'm not quite sure how you intended to scan the ...


5

Sorry, but this does not scan correctly. First, the meter in your first line is missing a beat in your description, though, it's there I see in the line itself. The o in annos is long by position, because it is followed by two consonants. Same with the u in virumque. qui is elided before ab. The a in probationem is long, as is the second o. The makes the ...


5

An interesting discussion. Re aqua, it is a thorny problem. There are two (indirectly three) cases in Lucretius (and, save for an anonymous tragic line and an anonymous inscription, in Lucretius alone) where aqua cannot be scanned in the usual disyllabic way: 6.552 fit quoque, ubi in magnas aquae uastasque lacunas where aquae must either be anapaestic or ...


5

The literature that I've viewed so far suggests that in Plautine Latin, forms like domust for domus est could be found, but not forms like dom'et for domus et. Terence and the Verb 'To Be' in Latin, by Giuseppe Pezzini (2015), describes -us est → -ust as (in at least some time periods) a special contraction belonging to est, rather than an example of regular ...


5

Partial answer. As you say, -nh- is quite a rare letter sequence within a word. The word's metrical behavior suggests the division a-nhe-lo The only perspective I can speak from confidently is a certain modern linguistic analysis of Latin syllabification (so, what follows isn't necessarily applicable to how you will see words hyphenated in songbooks, or how ...


4

In many Greek meters there's a rule by which a long syllable can be replaced with two shorts ("resolution"). This is what has happened with προσεκύνει in this line: the first two short syllables count as one long. Dividing the line into feet we get θεῶν ἀλη|θῶς προσεκύνει | τε κἀτίμα where the metrical scheme is ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ | ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯ | ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ The ...


4

Hoc is always scanned long in classical poetry, because it is the same as *hocc (from *hocce < *hodce). I give only a couple of examples, but you can check by yourself using http://www.pedecerto.eu/ricerca/forma. It is the same for the other words formed with the intensifying particle -ce, like istuc (from *istucce < *istudce) or illuc (from *illucce &...


4

I think there is only one hexameter verse: Fulget hon/orifi/cabili/tudini/tatibus / iste. This contains a word even longer than the headword. It would not scan right without the addition of the dactylic -tudini-. I would translate it as "he shines in his honor(-related thing)". The following line does not seem to scan as a hexameter or pentameter, ...


4

There are really two senses of "caesura", one of them objectively definable, the other not so much. Most basically, a caesura is defined simply as any word break in the line that occurs within a foot, rather than at a foot boundary. (The opposite of a caesura is a diaeresis, which is a word break that corresponds to a foot boundary.) In this sense ...


3

Hoc There is indeed classical precedent to pronounce hoc as hocc. Velius Longus in De Orthographia 53 writes: At cum dicimus 'hic est ille', unum c scribimus et duo audimus, quod apparet in metro. Nam: Hoc erat alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignes eripis… (Aeneis 2.664–665) Si unum c hanc syllabam exciperet, acephalus esset versus nec posset a longa ...


3

Synizesis of ee is supposed to occur in forms of the verb deesse. Presumably the result was [eː], with the same pronunciation as ē. This seems very similar to the contraction seen in words like dēbeo or dēmo. Evidence from poetry indicates that those imperfective forms of deesse ‘be missing, absent’ where the stem begins with [e] are contracted even if ...


3

It's a hiatus because it's located at the principle caesura: et vera | inces|su patu|it dea. || Ille ubi | matrem In fact, Lodge specifically references this line in the section on hiatus, as I'm sure do a few others. Note that hiatus isn't impossible anywhere, but it's common specifically here. The grammars will typically say "most" or "usually", and I'...


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