Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect.
Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...
We know that meter existed because Aristotle in his Poetics flatly tells us so. Moreover, we have quite a bit of testimony from ancient grammarians like Quintilian and Victorinus, whose work on meters is most informative.
We also have poets' own words about their meters, such as Catullus mentioning his hendecasyllabi or Ovid writing aobut how Cupid stole a ...
The length of vowels with “hidden quantity” can often be discovered from one of the following sources of information:
Explicit descriptions of vowel length in ancient texts
“Lachmann’s law” is a well-known rule about the length of vowels in closed syllables in past participles; we have a description of this from the works of Aulus Gellius according to ...
First, though it is indicated by an apostrophe in modern texts, elision also occurs in ancient Greek poetry. The rules were different from Latin, though. I quote Smyth for them:
Elision is the expulsion of a short vowel at the end of a word before a word beginning with a vowel. An apostrophe ( ’ ) marks the place where the vowel is elided.
Allecto, one of the Furies, is commonly associated with dark colours and snakes (see Pauly–Wissowa on the Furies). Furies often have snake hair too, and snakes are often blue; they don't look like ordinary women. So Allecto took a snake from her dark-blue snake hair.
Caerulus can mean "dark" as an epithet to words like death and rain, but Lewis & Short ...
This page (in Italian) has three bilingual Italian-Latin poems.
"Salve Regina" by Anacleto Bendazzi (1883-1982) seems to be the Christian-themed one (though I don't know either Italian or Latin well enough to translate it myself):
Salve Regina ! Te saluto, o pia,
nostra tutela in tenebrosa via,
in sinistra terrifica procella
Horace's poem here is about a pretty young girl, Pyrrha, and I understand the phrase to describe how unfortunate (miseri) the men are who have not been able to touch (tempto/tento) her.
I might translate it as follows: "Poor guys, for whom you [Pyrrha] shine, you who are untouched [by them]" -- I've expanded the participle into a relative clause.
Let me offer a translation attempt piece by piece.
My translations are not perfectly literal, but the way I build it up should clarify what it each Latin word does.
I reordered the words to make the organization clearer.
It has proven quite useful to try to identify the core clause and expand little by little in both languages at the same time.
Nondum pinus ...
As a first point, you are certainly not the first person to recognize this. I found a delightful little poem composed in the 19th century by a certain Piré that uses this same word-play:
Omnia Vincit Amor
Omnia vincit amor; non est hoc simplice sensu
Verum; cura duplex nascitur inde tibi:
Vincere scit telis, roseis vincire catenis;
Elision of a vowel (or vowel + m) occurs when it's at the end of the word, and the next word starts with either a vowel or h + vowel.
At the discretion of the poet, the last vowel of a word can be kept even if the next starts with one; in this case, it's considered to be in hiatus. However, this is very, very rare.
However, if the second word is a form of ...
Of course, as with so much in Latin, there's more than one answer, none of them incorrect.
The first answer is yes, using hic and ille like this to mean "the latter" and "the former" is common and correct. Here's Cicero in De Amicitia:
Scitum est enim illud Catonis, ut multa: 'melius de quibusdam acerbos inimicos mereri quam eos amicos qui dulces ...
When hic and ille are used like this, they refer to the distance of words: hic refers to the closest noun, ille the one that came first.
In your example, you have first pontus and then aer. Hic therefore refers to the one closer to the pronoun, and since aer is closer to hic than pontus, it must refer to that. Likewise, since pontus is further away than aer,...
I have run a quick analysis using data from latinlexicon.org. I included adverbs ending in -ter (about 820). Most end in -iter (the rule). A good number end in -nter (which as you know are formed with syncopation regularly when the base adjective/participle ends in -nt). The remainders are a mix of declinables and indeclinables (e.g., propter is indeclinable ...
I'd like to offer an addition, which was originally posted as a comment but requested to be turned into an answer by OP.
As explained in the other two answers, iste, ille and hic are used to refer back to the items of a previous enumeration. In that sense, "the former ... the latter" is a perfectly acceptable translation. However, in your example this ...
There are a couple of Greek loan words here:
agyrta(?) (ἀγύρτης), vagabond
theriaca (θηριακή [sc. ἀντίδοτος]), antidote against a poisonous bite (e.g., snake bite)
pyrium (πύρινον [sc. φάρμακον]), fiery drug, probably arsenic (according to LSJ)
Update: More likely, I think, especially given the context, pyrio = pulvere pyrio, 'gunpowder'
Other than that, I ...
After doing a rudimentary corpus analysis of the Vergil's Aeneid, my conclusion is that Latin verse does not show any meaningful relationship between syllable length and word position.
To test this, I wrote up a rudimentary Python program that went through the whole text of the Aeneid and found the syllable length of every word, grouping them by their ...
They are Etruscans. Atavi here does not mean any specific ancestor (i.e. pater abavi), but in general "ancestors." Horace makes the connection explicit later (Odes 3.29.1):
Tyrrhena regum progenies
Tyrrhenian progeny of kings
Note: Tyrrhenus, from Tyrrheni, and is the Greek designation for the Etruscans; also, that the adjective goes with progenies ...
I believe it is also used in prose with certain words, like deum and virum, although it is indeed less common. Livius, Ab Urbe Condita V 14.4:
... pestilentiam agris urbique [esse] inlatam haud dubia ira deum, quos pestis eius arcendae causa placandos esse in libris fatalibus inuentum sit; ...
"...by/through the undoubted ire of the gods, whom in order ...
iambus: light + heavy
pyrrhicus: light + light
creticus: heavy + light + heavy
dactylus: heavy + light + light
Brevis Brevians is a tendency in early Latin, first attested in early metric poetry, to reduce the length of the second syllable of iambic words, resulting in a pyrrhic word. The same principle applies if the word is a cretic, which ...
It's an uncertain fragment, fr. 27.1 in Lobel & Page's Poetarum Lesbiorum Fragmenta, per the TLG. It comes from P.Vindob. 29777a.
It's on p. 454 of the Campbell's Loeb on Sappho and Alcaeus. If you have access to the Loeb Library Online, you can view it here.
πόλλ & Ἀτρε are not actually readable from the papyrus.
My source for this answer is A. Ernout, Morphologie historique du latin, Paris 1974.
Verbs in -iō (originated by a well-known indo-european -ye/o- suffix attached directly to the verbal root) belong either to the third (ĭ) or the fourth (ī) conjugation, according to a set of rules:
Monosyllabic radical, ī: sciō, scīre.
After a long ...
First, let us check all vowel lengths:
tŭm vērō ĕxŏrĭtŭr clāmŏr rīpaequĕ lăcūsquĕ
A syllable with a short vowel can be long (by position).
The standard assumption is that all possible elisions happen, and that is the case here too.
There are two possibilities for a ...
In scansion, a vowel is long by position if there are more than two consonants between it and the next vowel.
This is the usual way of putting it, but it's inacccurate/misleading in a couple of ways.
First, it's not really the vowel that is long by position; it's the syllable that is long, or in a different terminology, "heavy". (Linguists these days speak ...
To expand on Joonas's answer, I think he is 100% correct that mirata is elliptical; est is left out but must be assumed in order to translate the sentence. The structure is as follows:
Iuno despexit in Argos
et mirata [est] nebulas volucres fecisse faciem noctis
nec sensit [nebulas] remitti tellure
We have three parallel main clauses here, ...
Here's an example from Lucan's Bellum civile (8.321) where īt is used and ĭĭt would break the meter:
nomen abit aut unde redi maiore triumpho? (8.321)
The form abiit would produce three short syllabus in a row.
The word "sŭŭs" is always counted as a sequence of two distinct vowels in latin hexameter, as you can see, for example, in Verg. georg. 4,190:
In noctem, fessosque sopōr sŭŭs ōccŭpăt artus
in Ov. ars 2,643:
Nēc sŭŭs Andromedae color est obiectus ab illo
and in Ov. met. 2,186, which has sŭūs just like your verse:
Frēnă sŭūs rector, quam dis ...
As promised before in a comment, I made a corpus analysis of whether word length, in terms of number of syllables, is correlated with position in the verse.
Spoiler alert: it isn't. brianpck has already done a basic corpus analysis with essentially the right conclusion, but I intended to do this as thoroughly as possible in order to hone my primitive skills ...
Could it be Catullus 95? I quote the whole thing because it is a sustained attack on prolix poetry (unlike his own small, polished nuggets of verse) but it might be line 3 that you're thinking of. The text has gaps but most translators supply "year" after uno and assume quingenta lines.
Zmyrna mei Cinnae, nonam post denique messem
quam coeptast ...
Here's a rewording solutis versibus by Daniel Crespin:
Nondum abies ex montibus suis desecta descenderat in aquas fluidas, ut terras alienas adiret : et nulla littora nisi sua hominibus perspecta.
That probably clarifies a lot, especially that suis modifies montibus and that caesa modifies pinus, but here are a couple other notes.
Thomas Swinburne Carr ...
Not every theta automatically makes a word cognate with 'god.' If the apparent etymology of the name Pentheus is correct, it's just formed from the noun πένθος, 'grief'/'misery,' and the -εύς suffix (which, according to Smyth's Greek grammar, §843, denotes 'the person concerned or occupied by [a] thing'). In this case, the theta belongs to the root itself ...