This means "illa" definitely doesn't refer to "dies".
But it does!
The word dies can be feminine, and it is here.
The feminine gender is rarer but it is the typical choice for a special day like an appointment or a deadline.
That's why it was chosen here.
For details, see this question about gender variation in dies.
Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect.
Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...
The verb Catullus uses is odisse, not odire (from which you would get an imperative odi).
This verb only has forms in the perfect system but the meaning is that of the present system.
That is, what is the present active indicative by meaning is odi, odisti, odit, odimus, odistis, oderunt — perfect active indicative forms.
This is one of the defective verbs ...
We know that meter existed because Aristotle in his Poetics flatly tells us so. Moreover, we have quite a bit of testimony from ancient grammarians like Quintilian and Victorinus, whose work on meters is most informative.
We also have poets' own words about their meters, such as Catullus mentioning his hendecasyllabi or Ovid writing aobut how Cupid stole a ...
The length of vowels with “hidden quantity” can often be discovered from one of the following sources of information:
Explicit descriptions of vowel length in ancient texts
“Lachmann’s law” is a well-known rule about the length of vowels in closed syllables in past participles; we have a description of this from the works of Aulus Gellius according to ...
It is the feminine nominative and refers to dies. It means “that day.”
You do not say why you think you can definitely rule it out, but I guess you think dies is masculine, which is indeed the case. But it is also often feminine. Generally speaking, it is feminine only when referring to a set day, an appointed time. This does arguably apply to the day of ...
Joonas's answer is entirely correct, but to give a slightly different explanation:
Some verbs in Latin are defective. Some of their forms are outright missing, for no obvious reason. For example, the verb ait "say" is always cited in the third person singular present—because most of the other forms we'd cite don't exist! It has no first person ...
First, though it is indicated by an apostrophe in modern texts, elision also occurs in ancient Greek poetry. The rules were different from Latin, though. I quote Smyth for them:
Elision is the expulsion of a short vowel at the end of a word before a word beginning with a vowel. An apostrophe ( ’ ) marks the place where the vowel is elided.
Allecto, one of the Furies, is commonly associated with dark colours and snakes (see Pauly–Wissowa on the Furies). Furies often have snake hair too, and snakes are often blue; they don't look like ordinary women. So Allecto took a snake from her dark-blue snake hair.
Caerulus can mean "dark" as an epithet to words like death and rain, but Lewis &...
This page (in Italian) has three bilingual Italian-Latin poems.
"Salve Regina" by Anacleto Bendazzi (1883-1982) seems to be the Christian-themed one (though I don't know either Italian or Latin well enough to translate it myself):
Salve Regina ! Te saluto, o pia,
nostra tutela in tenebrosa via,
in sinistra terrifica procella
I suspect that any reply to this broad a question will always be rife with conjecture, but the reason for the convoluted word order is always a combination of the metrical cadence, and the effect that word order has on the listener. It is generally accepted that literature was usually read aloud in ancient Rome - we can even assume that lyrical poetry was (...
I think you're still assuming that English-style word order is in some sense natural or default, despite your correct disclaimer that "sentences that appear 'scrambled' in English might not be perceived to be so in Latin". For example, you refer to "moving unam all the way to the end", but of course it hasn't been moved anywhere; its ...
As a first point, you are certainly not the first person to recognize this. I found a delightful little poem composed in the 19th century by a certain Piré that uses this same word-play:
Omnia Vincit Amor
Omnia vincit amor; non est hoc simplice sensu
Verum; cura duplex nascitur inde tibi:
Vincere scit telis, roseis vincire catenis;
Utcumque accipias, omnia ...
Horace's poem here is about a pretty young girl, Pyrrha, and I understand the phrase to describe how unfortunate (miseri) the men are who have not been able to touch (tempto/tento) her.
I might translate it as follows: "Poor guys, for whom you [Pyrrha] shine, you who are untouched [by them]" -- I've expanded the participle into a relative clause.
Let me offer a translation attempt piece by piece.
My translations are not perfectly literal, but the way I build it up should clarify what it each Latin word does.
I reordered the words to make the organization clearer.
It has proven quite useful to try to identify the core clause and expand little by little in both languages at the same time.
Nondum pinus ...
Elision of a vowel (or vowel + m) occurs when it's at the end of the word, and the next word starts with either a vowel or h + vowel.
At the discretion of the poet, the last vowel of a word can be kept even if the next starts with one; in this case, it's considered to be in hiatus. However, this is very, very rare.
However, if the second word is a form of ...
I have run a quick analysis using data from latinlexicon.org. I included adverbs ending in -ter (about 820). Most end in -iter (the rule). A good number end in -nter (which as you know are formed with syncopation regularly when the base adjective/participle ends in -nt). The remainders are a mix of declinables and indeclinables (e.g., propter is indeclinable ...
Of course, as with so much in Latin, there's more than one answer, none of them incorrect.
The first answer is yes, using hic and ille like this to mean "the latter" and "the former" is common and correct. Here's Cicero in De Amicitia:
Scitum est enim illud Catonis, ut multa: 'melius de quibusdam acerbos inimicos mereri quam eos amicos ...
When hic and ille are used like this, they refer to the distance of words: hic refers to the closest noun, ille the one that came first.
In your example, you have first pontus and then aer. Hic therefore refers to the one closer to the pronoun, and since aer is closer to hic than pontus, it must refer to that. Likewise, since pontus is further away than aer,...
After doing a rudimentary corpus analysis of the Vergil's Aeneid, my conclusion is that Latin verse does not show any meaningful relationship between syllable length and word position.
To test this, I wrote up a rudimentary Python program that went through the whole text of the Aeneid and found the syllable length of every word, grouping them by their ...
I'd like to offer an addition, which was originally posted as a comment but requested to be turned into an answer by OP.
As explained in the other two answers, iste, ille and hic are used to refer back to the items of a previous enumeration. In that sense, "the former ... the latter" is a perfectly acceptable translation. However, in your example this ...
There are a couple of Greek loan words here:
agyrta(?) (ἀγύρτης), vagabond
theriaca (θηριακή [sc. ἀντίδοτος]), antidote against a poisonous bite (e.g., snake bite)
pyrium (πύρινον [sc. φάρμακον]), fiery drug, probably arsenic (according to LSJ)
Update: More likely, I think, especially given the context, pyrio = pulvere pyrio, 'gunpowder'
Other than that, I ...
iambus: light + heavy
pyrrhicus: light + light
creticus: heavy + light + heavy
dactylus: heavy + light + light
Brevis Brevians is a tendency in early Latin, first attested in early metric poetry, to reduce the length of the second syllable of iambic words, resulting in a pyrrhic word. The same principle applies if the word is a cretic, which ...
They are Etruscans. Atavi here does not mean any specific ancestor (i.e. pater abavi), but in general "ancestors." Horace makes the connection explicit later (Odes 3.29.1):
Tyrrhena regum progenies
Tyrrhenian progeny of kings
Note: Tyrrhenus, from Tyrrheni, and is the Greek designation for the Etruscans; also, that the adjective goes with ...
I believe it is also used in prose with certain words, like deum and virum, although it is indeed less common. Livius, Ab Urbe Condita V 14.4:
... pestilentiam agris urbique [esse] inlatam haud dubia ira deum, quos pestis eius arcendae causa placandos esse in libris fatalibus inuentum sit; ...
"...by/through the undoubted ire of the gods, whom in order ...
In scansion, a vowel is long by position if there are more than two consonants between it and the next vowel.
This is the usual way of putting it, but it's inacccurate/misleading in a couple of ways.
First, it's not really the vowel that is long by position; it's the syllable that is long, or in a different terminology, "heavy". (Linguists these days speak ...
It's an uncertain fragment, fr. 27.1 in Lobel & Page's Poetarum Lesbiorum Fragmenta, per the TLG. It comes from P.Vindob. 29777a.
It's on p. 454 of the Campbell's Loeb on Sappho and Alcaeus. If you have access to the Loeb Library Online, you can view it here.
πόλλ & Ἀτρε are not actually readable from the papyrus.
My source for this answer is A. Ernout, Morphologie historique du latin, Paris 1974.
Verbs in -iō (originated by a well-known indo-european -ye/o- suffix attached directly to the verbal root) belong either to the third (ĭ) or the fourth (ī) conjugation, according to a set of rules:
Monosyllabic radical, ī: sciō, scīre.
After a long ...
First, let us check all vowel lengths:
tŭm vērō ĕxŏrĭtŭr clāmŏr rīpaequĕ lăcūsquĕ
A syllable with a short vowel can be long (by position).
The standard assumption is that all possible elisions happen, and that is the case here too.
There are two possibilities for a ...
I don't know any reason why the first vowel of "lucubrando" would be short; I'd guess it might be an error.
However, I was able to find some references that describe final o as often being treated as "common" (able to be long or short) for various words in various eras of poetry, and in particular in gerund.
In Adam's Latin Grammar, by Alexander Adam, from ...