Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect.
Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...
As an adjective, indeed, medius, -a, -um does not take a genitive. However, there is a noun, the substantive medium, -i, which also means "middle" or "midst." Referring to a physical space, it's fairly common during the Augustan era and later, and, yes, it can take a genitive. Compare this passage of Livy 37.13.10:
insidiis medio ferme ...
Allecto, one of the Furies, is commonly associated with dark colours and snakes (see Pauly–Wissowa on the Furies). Furies often have snake hair too, and snakes are often blue; they don't look like ordinary women. So Allecto took a snake from her dark-blue snake hair.
Caerulus can mean "dark" as an epithet to words like death and rain, but Lewis &...
Grammatically, the subject must be the bough, because qui, the relative pronoun that refers to ramum, is nominative.
In the clause 'which she was hiding', 'which' is the direct object; so the relative pronoun would have to be accusative (quem). In addition, the verb would have to be transitive, which lateo isn't; it doesn't take a direct object (except in ...
The entry for Anna in Wiktionary certainly states that it derives from the Hebrew Hannah. And this is how Augustine uses it in The City of God against the Pagans, in book 17, when referring to Hannah, the mother of Samuel (mater quoque ipsa Samuelis Anna ...)
However, there is the possibility that Anna is in fact a Latin name, based on the Roman goddess ...
Fascinating question! I've found some editions of the Aeneid with these extra lines included, and some (most) without.
It seems that they aren't found in any of the oldest manuscripts of the Aeneid (except where one commentator scribbled them in the margin much later). Instead, they're first mentioned by the grammarian Aelius Donatus, who wrote in his Vita ...
Negative future imperatives do indeed exist.
A great many can be found in the laws of twelve tables.
Hominem mortuum in urbe ne sepelito
Do not bury a dead person in the city
Judging by these examples, the syntax is simply ne + future imperative.
I am not sure if memento should be semantically treated as a future imperative.
It is a future ...
English is unhelpful here, as "hide" can be transitive or intransitive. However, the verb lateo, latere is intransitive. It doesn't mean to hide something, but rather to lie hidden or to be hidden. It's intransitive, and thus does not take a direct object.
If you want the verb to hide as in to conceal, you'd want to use instead something like celo, celare ...
ACC.PL. is fĕrĕntīs.
The final syllable is superheavy, i.e. it consists of three morae.
FYI, the latest Teubner edition of Aeneis (Conte 2009) uses "ferentis", and so does Mynors 1969:
aut aliquis latet error: equo ne credite, Teucri.
quidqud id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis.’
sic fatus ualidis ingentem uiribus hastam
(II 48-50, p. 34)
It's definitely long, because the vowel of that i-stem acc. pl. ending, -īs, is always long, as any good grammar will tell you. (If the form was gen. sg., of course, it would be short, but that doesn't work in this line.)
Yes, I would by all means supply est. The phrase fas est is a fixed combination either introducing an a.c.i. or governing a complementary/supplementary infinitive plus the latter's arguments. The est can be omitted, as in similar constructions. I would analyse this fas est as having a primary dative complement nulli casto and a infinitival phrase as a ...
Looking at it, I don't think me is ablative; it's more likely an accusative as the subject of an indirect statement with credere. Discessu here is not a supine, but a fourth-declension noun, discessus.
The translated line should actually be:
Nor did I believe that I in my departure would ever have caused you so much pain.
(Apologies for the tenses.)
I compiled this list of mistakes with the help of the commentary accompanying the Finnish translation by Alpo Rönty.
I do not claim that the list is complete, but I hope it gives something concrete enough.
First, the epic contains anacronisms.
For example, theaters (I.427) were not around at the time.
These are probably partly intentional and partly ...
Just to come back to part of the original question, Virgil did not come up with this part of the story himself. Anna as sister of Dido already occurs in Naevius and Varro; this does of course not invalidate the explanations given. See Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, vol. II col. 108,3.
Penelope's survey of available evidence seems to be virtually complete. I chiefly want to observe — with no detriment at all to Penelope's answer — that it relies wholly on mythology, which is really all that we have. Even the mythology may have no more substance than one man's (Ovid's) imagination.
Although it is now mostly disregarded, one of the most ...
Your second translation is pretty close to the mark. Let's go through the translation step by step.
Let us first recall to mind the context: Dido has just finished a long harangue (4:305-330) excoriating Aeneas for attempting to leave her in secret. Aeneas is grieved and silent, and then...
Tandem pauca refert
At last he spoke these few words
Although you ...
The second supine (ending with -u) can only be combined with adjectives, or with fas and nefas. Examples:
iucundum cognitu atque auditu
nefas est dictu
A second supine verb never has an object, but it can have a subject, for example pleraque faciliora sunt dictu quam factu.
Regarding the question in the title, Lewis and Short (seemingly this community's favorite dictionary) lists among the meanings of inde the following: from that time, thenceforward, since, after that, thereafter, thereupon, then. Just in case, there is the same entry on other dictionary. The same idea applies to unde.
Relative pronouns/adverbs that mark ...
The name Ĭūlus is trisyllabic. It's listed as such in dictionaries, e.g. L&S, and there's ample metrical evidence for this, though much of it is indirect.
A search for forms of Iūlus in the Aeneid finds that it never occurs at the beginning of a line -- in fact, it's almost always line-final, as in the line you quote. This itself is suspicious since if ...
Here is the article Iulus in "The New Pauli":
In the tradition set by Virgil I. is the only son of Aeneas and
Creusa of Troy, progenitor of the Roman gens Iulia; in Troy he is
called Ilus, later Ascanius (Aen. 1,267f.). The name Ascanius for a
(usually the eldest) son of Aeneas first appears after Homer (in Homer
two confederates of the Trojans ...
I'm afraid I don't have good news for you. In Latin one can only use meaning & context to know if the adjective/participle is used "dominantly" (NB: for a relevant terminological remark, please see TKR's comment above). Note that your first example is ambiguous between a predicative/"dominant" reading ('the highest point of heaven') and an attributive ...
In addition to Mitomino's excellent answer, I would just like to note that partitive use of adjectives exists in English too and is no less ambiguous than in Latin.
OK, we do not say “the top mountain” in English. But we do say:
the southern United States (really: the southern part)
the late twentieth century (really: the late part)
the lowest ebb (really: ...
By chance I came across this passage on teaching Virgil, and other Classics in
p. 32 [on-line 47/171]The Seven Liberal Arts, Paul Abelson, 1909.
Bernard of Chartres, for instance, who taught John of Salisbury, in
the twelfth century, not only read the authors with his pupils but
also explained constructions, pointed out mistakes and beauties of
There is much evidence on the composition of the Aeneid to support the tradition that it was left incomplete and unedited at the poet’s death and, further, that his will required it to be destroyed for that reason. It was preserved and published through the direct intervention of Augustus, who instructed the contemporary poet Varius Rufus (a friend of Virgil,...
Looking at Niklas Holzbergs list of publications seems unproductive for this.
His Sammlung Tusculum book does not look like what you want.
This seems to be a mixup: Nicholas Horsfall has published on this too!
And this looks like what you want to get at:
Nicholas Horsfall: "The Epic Distilled. Studies in the Composition of the Aeneid" ? He has much more ...
You might enjoy Dryden's famous — but magnificently erratic — translation, completed in 1697 :
. . . and thus at length replies, / "Fair Queen, you never can enough repeat / Your boundless favours, or I own my debt, / Nor can my mind forget Eliza's (!) name, / While vital breath inspires this mortal frame. / . . .
The whole translation tends to be ...
Perseus offers two English translations of Aeneid, including your passage.
Theodore C. Williams, 1910, writes:
Arise, Out of my dust, unknown Avenger, rise!
John Dryden writes:
Rise some avenger of our Libyan blood
They both take poetic license in expressing the same idea.
The word os indeed means only bones, not ashes.
The point is not taking it ...
I checked Perseus and The Latin Library.
Both use facilis descensus Averno.
You misspelled facilis ("easy"); it is not related to fascis.
Did you find the version Averni somewhere?
Anyway, both forms make sense.
I would read descensus Averno as "descent through the entrance of the underworld" and descensus Averni as "descent of the entrance of the ...
I‘ve found it. Holzberg did at least propagate the idea in this lecture (from 2:00):
On a closer look, it can be regrouped into 3 parts of 4 books each, the first four of whom take place in Carthage, interestingly enough. The epos is not linearly structured, but in a sort of retrospective. [...]
in the fifth book, Aeneas goes on more Odysseus, he visits the ...
In addition to Cerberus' answer, I would rather make the following slicing:
fas [est] nulli casto
insistere limen sceleratum
As far as I know, it is very common to omit esse in Latin: e.g. some lines before your quotation you can read Quæ scelerum facies? (What shapes of crime are here? v. 560).