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10

Good question! "Declension" (like "conjugation") is a word that means two different things. In the abstract sense, "declension" is the abstract process of changing a noun or adjective's ending to reflect its role in the sentence. In the specific sense, a "declension" is a class of nouns (or adjectives) that all decline the same way. Latin has five ...


10

"The early Italian house consisted only of the atrium and the surrounding rooms, with, in most cases, a small garden at the back.... Out of the small plot at the back of the early house developed the peristylium, a garden surrounded by colonnades on to which rooms opened on all sides,... The peristylium, both in general appearance and in name, reproduced ...


9

Here's a short answer so far - no one knows. Brandenburg 2013 writes that "In non-technical contexts, ptôsis refers among other things to the ‘falling of dice’ (Pl. Resp. 10,604c6; Aristot. Eth. Eud. 9,1247a21-23). In the grammatical terminology it refers to the forms of nominal declension. This, however, renders the metaphor of falling unintelligible, ...


9

There's no „classical Latin“ when it comes to grammar, as Latin grammarians flourished during Late antiquity. The most famous of them all (and synonymous with „grammar“ through the Middle Ages), Aelius Donatus, wrote his Ars Maior and Ars Minor during 4th century. Donati Ars minor, de verbo: modi qui sunt? indicatiuus, | ut lego; imperatiuus, ut lege; ...


8

Can someone please expound and enlarge on this sentence? Why was the subjunctive mood 'regarded as specially appropriate to ‘subjoined’ or subordinate clauses'? Perhaps you are looking at it the wrong way around. Language happens to be what it is and we describe it, but our descriptions have little or no effect on the language. If we declared subjunctive ...


8

The third part of Descartes's Principia Philosophiae (pg. 78 of this edition) contains a more literal translation of "all things unchanged": Si autem caeteris immutatis, contingat ut minuatur illa vis... Note that I only found 150 G-hits for this phrase: I highly recommend the (almost) exactly equivalent and far more prevalent ceteris paribus. If you are ...


7

(A partial answer, on which I hope others will expand:) There was an original collection of Milesian Tales (Μιλησικά), written in Greek by Aristides of Miletus in the second century BC. These have not survived; they were known to the Romans in a Latin translation, of which we only have a few short fragments. These Milesian tales seem to have been comic ...


7

For reference: iambus: light + heavy pyrrhicus: light + light creticus: heavy + light + heavy dactylus: heavy + light + light Brevis Brevians is a tendency in early Latin, first attested in early metric poetry, to reduce the length of the second syllable of iambic words, resulting in a pyrrhic word. The same principle applies if the word is a cretic, which ...


6

It appears that you are correct that a casus is seen as a kind of metaphor for a noun "falling into place." Maurus Servius Honoratus (4-5th century AD) has an important quote that makes two points that bear on your question: Casus plerique quattuor esse dicunt, auferentes nominativum et vocativum, qui similis est nominativo. ideo autem auferunt ...


6

Here’s my original suggestion - once again, this is my guess, and it can be wrong. Economy might stand here for the most efficient use of space/materials/other resources at the disposal of the scribe because, as Roger Bagnall puts it, "the labor involved in making papyrus was considerable, and its price was therefore significant, most typically several ...


6

"Smooth breathing." When a word in ancient Greek began with a vowel, ancient scholars gave it one of two breathing marks. The spiritus lenis (Gk. ψιλὸν πνεῦμα) meant it was not aspirated, while the rough breathing (Lt. spiritus asper, Gk. δασὺ πνεῦμα) meant it should be aspirated.


5

If Latin prose had an "extremely loose word order", which is (generally) not the case, the appropriate linguistic term involved would be "non-configurationality". However, rather than being vaguely classified as a free word order language or as a non-configurational language, Latin has been referred to in the recent literature on Latin syntax as a "discourse ...


5

I would simply say: "Illi is an inflected form of ille. Illi is the singular dative masculine form of ille." (I am not sure what the role of "declension" in your example is. I found it more natural to leave it out.) In all generality, I would just use the expression "inflected form". In a more specific case, you can consider "oblique case", but that only ...


5

Futurum instans literally means "immediate/imminent future." ("Instant" comes from this word but has a different flavor in English now.) Futurum instans seems to be a term especially prevalent in the grammar of Semitic languages. Most of the top Google results refer to Hebrew or Aramaic. It appears to be a common term for a certain Hebrew participle (see ...


5

First, while gerere can mean "to bear, carry", it also can simply mean "to do*, as in the res gestae, not "things carried," but "things done." This stems from a meaning close to English usage, where we have "to carry" and "to carry out," where the latter simply means "to do." The name was chosen to connote the usage of gerunds and gerundives. Since gerunds ...


4

Lausberg’s admirable book Elemente der literarischen Rhetorik §425 uses „fictio personae“ and also „prosopopoeia“. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "personification" was "formed within English, by derivation". The earliest citation is from 1728.


4

First, let's just note that the English phrase "machine learning" does not unambiguously communicate its meaning. If you had no context for it, you wouldn't know if it meant using a machine to learn, or learning about machines, or a machine doing the learning, etc. So, you've essentially asked for a translation that's more precise than the original phrase. ...


4

The (Pseudo-)Hippocratean treatise “On the nature of man” proposes the theory of the four humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and the imaginary black bile) as an explanation not only for diseases, but for a large number of natural phenomena, including the four seasons, each of which is associated with one of the humours. This association is as logical or ...


3

I've always heard it described as free word order. That is, the word order is "free" in that it can be pushed and pulled and twisted every which way while still being understandable.


3

I wonder if this "principle of economy" concerns the text rather than the physical papyrus itself. That is to say, it is perhaps a principle of textual criticism rather than papyrology. I say this because that was more M. L. West's field (please see edit below) and also because the excerpts you give seem to draw a distinction between the physical aspects ...


3

The answer given by Joonas is good, and exactly along the lines that you suggest. However, this concept can often seem rather awkward to express in Latin, so I think it worthwhile to expound more widely on it. We should first remember that proximus means not only 'nearest', but 'adjacent'. Whether it is to be translated as 'most recent' or 'next to come' ...


3

One Latin word for "proximity" is proximitas and "temporal" can be translated as temporalis. Therefore I would translate "in order of temporal proximity" as in ordine proximitatis temporalis. This is in contrast with in ordine chronologico or in ordine prioritatis. Alternatively, you could drop the in and go with the plain ablative ordine.


2

Economy in this context could be the well-known, general principle of economy from linguistics (Passy, Martinet, Tauli etc.) - a possibility which I initially discarded as the most obvious. E.g. Valter Tauli argued that an ideal language "must contain the maximum possible economy which is compatible with the absolute clarity and necessary expressiveness." ...


2

As Joonas quite aptly put it: I don't think there is a satisfying answer to "why". Grammar isn't a theory where you can logically deduce things from others. It is primarily a description of how a language is actually used. And this description here is: "this mood is found mainly in subordinate clauses and we call it 'subjunctive' for that reason". This ...


1

I have to admit, I don't know. I've done some research and I am not entirely sure. So, I offer two explanations - in two different answers. The principle of (formulaic) economy As Russo reminds us, "Anyone who reads Homer in Greek becomes eventually aware that repetition is constantly at play, some of its forms being more immediately evident than ...


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