27

It sounds like you're talking about this incident involving the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund at the Council of Constance in 1414: …A similar anecdote is told of the German Emperor Sigismund. When presiding at the Council of Constance, he addressed the assembly in a Latin speech, exhorting them to eradicate the schism of the Hussites. 'Videte Patres,' he ...


19

The Greeks were keenly aware of dialectal differences, and long before the Romans came on the scene, the Greeks had already categorized their dialects into three or four common groups: Ionic (with Attic a sub-group), Doric, Aeolic, and Arcadian. A great, free introduction to this is Buck's Greek Dialects (or here; the third edition is still under copyright). ...


16

This numbering goes back to Greek grammarians. Here is the Τέχνη Γραμματική (Art of Grammar) ascribed to Dionysius Thrax: πρώσοπα τρία, πρῶτον, δεύτερον, τρίτον· πρῶτον μὲν ἀφ᾽ οὗ ὁ λόγος, δεύτερον δὲ πρὸς ὃν ὁ λόγος, τρίτον δὲ περὶ οὗ ὁ λόγος. "There are three persons ['faces'], first, second, third. The first is the one from whom the speech [proceeds]...


15

First person singular (laudo) appears to be most common Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 BC) wrote De Lingua Latina, which survives in partial, corrupted form, but which provides valuable testimony on this matter. In Book 6, chapter 5, he speaks of "derived words" and uses the first-person present active indicative form as the "basic form": Primigenia ...


14

In a recent paper (included in The Latin of the Grammarians), I have made the point that Latin grammarians, unlike their Greek predecessors, did not expressly stress the uninflectional nature of adverbs, and this may be due to the fact that they observed some sort of declension in some types of adverbs (not only those derived of adjectives -doctus > docte-, ...


10

Well, there is some fairly simple evidence that a sequence of two identical short vowels could in some cases be treated as equivalent to a single long vowel, namely that the former can contract into the latter: e.g. ĭĭt ~ īt, nĭhĭl ~ nīl. This does not necessarily imply that the pronunciations were identical, of course, but it does show that the two ...


10

The OLD provides several examples of verba meaning "verb" (as opposed to vocabulum or nomen, "noun." Aside from two instances in Varro: Hor.Ars 235; nec a ~is modo, sed ab nominibus quoque deriuata sunt quaedam, ut a Cicerone 'sullaturit' Quint. Inst. 8.3.32; in ~is...sermonis uis est 9.4.26; Vel.gram.in G.L.7.57; ut pro ~is habentibus patiendi figuram ...


9

Here's a short answer so far - no one knows. Brandenburg 2013 writes that "In non-technical contexts, ptôsis refers among other things to the ‘falling of dice’ (Pl. Resp. 10,604c6; Aristot. Eth. Eud. 9,1247a21-23). In the grammatical terminology it refers to the forms of nominal declension. This, however, renders the metaphor of falling unintelligible, ...


9

The ...abus dative/ablative plural is a rare feature of the first declension that can in exceptional cases be traced back at least to classical Latin. For example, you will find Cicero saying (Pro C. Rabirio perduellionis reo): ab Iove Optimo Maximo ceterisque dis deabusque immortalibus [...] pacem ac veniam peto Clearly in this case Cicero uses the form ...


8

As far as I can see, the Roman grammarians did not consider the adverbial -e to be a case ending. On the other hand, from the standpoint of historical linguistics most Latin adverbs are indeed fossilised case forms of adjectives. The “adverbial -e” is in fact of two-fold origin. i-stem adjectives like facilis use the accusative singular neuter as an adverb (...


8

In the history of linguistics, Protagoras (5th century BCE) is assumed to be the first scholar ever who classified sentences into sentence types. Naturally, we don't have any textual evidence except Diogenes Laertius who says the following: διεῖλέ τε τὸν λόγον πρῶτος εἰς τέτταρα, εὐχωλήν, ἐρώτησιν, ἀπόκρισιν, ἐντολήν: 8 [54] ῾οἱ <:>ὲ εἰς ἑπτά, διήγησιν,...


8

These are some areas where Roman grammarians' views of Latin differed from ours (it doesn't necessarily mean that they were wrong and we're right). Under my first heading, I describe an area of eventual agreement. Under subsequent headings, I describe the disagreements (as well as alluding to some of the areas of agreement). Declensions and Conjugations The ...


7

I'm not sure hypercorrection is what you're looking for, but if not, have a look at Petronius' Satyricon. The work poked fun at a few of the nouveau riche (Trimalchio is chiefly lampooned), including their bad grammar. I only quote from one book, as the night is late and the author gives examples: Another point, the admirably clever adaptation of the ...


6

It appears that you are correct that a casus is seen as a kind of metaphor for a noun "falling into place." Maurus Servius Honoratus (4-5th century AD) has an important quote that makes two points that bear on your question: Casus plerique quattuor esse dicunt, auferentes nominativum et vocativum, qui similis est nominativo. ideo autem auferunt ...


6

Supine means flat on your back, lying down, It is the final 'oblique' form; it is the extremely inflected (leaning) part of the Verb and is usually in the last column of the principal parts, In later Grammars (that certainly includes medieval Grammars) 'oblique cases' and 'declension' are only used to describe the Voc., Acc., Gen., Dat., Abl., Loc., (X ...


6

W. Sidney Allen in Vox Latina says that various grammarians such as Quintilian stated the rules quite unambiguously (although he also writes that "there is some controversy about the nature of the historical accent"). However, even if we didn't have precise statements from ancient grammarians, the rules could pretty easily deduced simply from the reflexes ...


6

Let me try to approach this from a slightly different angle: What would work as a citation form? A good citation form would be such that you could deduce all other forms (from the present stem) from it. I will look into the six personal forms of present active indicative and the present active infinitive. The exercise can be extended to other forms, but ...


5

(First of all, here's how I'm interpreting the text: comment if this is significantly different from yours.) nihil in natura clarius quam quod unumquodque ens sub aliquo attributo debeat concipi Nothing in nature is clearer than the fact that every individual essence should be imagined as underlying some attribute. The explanation is actually ...


5

I've never come across any kind of systematic study of speech errors, but what might be called the locus classicus for this kind of thing is the well-known Catullus LXXXIV, in which the poet mocks Arrius for misplaced aitches: Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet   dicere, et insidias Arrius hinsidias, et tum mirifice sperabat se esse ...


5

Priscian would probably have called it genus promiscuum or genus epicoenum: Diomedes adds: “Latini promiscuum vel subcommune vocant”


5

For practical reasons, I imagine the index form is often (but not always) given in the first-person since it comes first in the principal parts and is usually the first in a paradigm memorized. There is however ancient precedence. In discussing Latin verbs, Varro chiefly (but again not always) gives the first person unless he was specifically discussing ...


5

It seems to mean simply "no ending". That is, at least in some situations you don't have to add anything to the stem to form the given case. This only happens in the singular; the plural cases always add something. That table at the top1 of page 13 only outlines the general tendencies or historical forms of Latin case endings. What really matters ...


4

I disagree with LaFeeVerte, and would like to posit that aliquis can function as an adjective. A quote from one of my favorite sources, Bennett's Latin Grammar: Aliquis may be used adjectively, and (occasionally) aliquī substantively. Unfortunately, no examples are provided to show its adjectival use, but the fact that it can be used as an ...


4

You decline the main noun and keep the genetive of the other noun. A relationship by marriage is: affinitas. A relationship by marriage with a very good man is: affinitas viri optimi. I congratulate you on your relationship by marriage with a very good man is: Gratulor tibi affinitatem viri […] optimi (Cicero, Epistulae ad familiares, 8,13); overly literal ...


4

This isn't a full answer, but brianpck provides some interesting evidence for how the Romans thought of verbs, in his answer to a related question. From Varro's De Lingua Latina VI.5.37: Primigenia dicuntur verba ut lego, scribo, sto, sedeo et cetera, quae non sunt ab ali<o> quo verbo, sed suas habent radices. Contra verba declinata sunt, quae ab ali&...


3

Generally, the answer is no. The adjective 'aliqui, aliquae, aliquod' should be used instead. That being said, however, Virgil (Aeneid, book II, line 48) seems to use 'aliquis' as an adjective, saying 'aut aliquis latet error'. Here both 'aliquis' and 'error' are in the nominative, which suggests that you can use 'aliquis' as an adjective. But perhaps '...


3

You can compose your own from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Grammarians_of_Latin but it is as you say a bit indigestible even in chronological sequence: Antonius Rufus (grammarian) (Dionysius Thrax Τέχνη γραμματική 150 BC) Lucius Aelius Stilo Praeconinus Philologist 100BC Marcus Fabius Quintilianus 100AD Institutio oratoria Sulpicius ...


3

Certainly the concept of subordination existed in antiquity; the Greek grammarians used ὑποβάλλω or ὑποτάττω to mean "to subordinate syntactically", and derived from this the term ὑποτακτικόν "subjunctive" (because the subjunctive mostly occurs in subordinate clauses). The Latin terms subordinare, subiungere, subiunctivum are calques of these. They also had ...


3

This is a matter of choice of the author, no escape. However, I would suggest to refer to a plural audience, like a true Latin orator, like Cicero, who looked at the crowd of the Senatus with respect and yet authority, declaiming "patres conscripti..." before a stream of adorned, refined words exited his mouth. Ok, probably you should choose another ...


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