39

Yes, they used swear words all the time! There's actually a whole book on the subject, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary by J. N. Adams. Cinaedus (the bad slang for a passive homosexual male), mentula (dick), and cunnus (cunt) are perhaps the most common and dirtiest insults. You can see on Wikipedia a larger list, too. There's actually a nice little poem—...


16

Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect. Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...


12

This is a really common stumbling block for those approaching Latin from the background of a language like English, so it merits a careful step-by-step explanation. I'll break my response into two steps: Adjectives agree in case, number, and gender with the noun they modify. Suus, -a, -um is an adjective. Adjectives agree with their nouns Let's start by ...


11

It's agreeing with sōlis, gen. sg. m.


11

On the one hand, we have MAX(IMO), A with an apex in CIL VI 2080 17 However, as De Angelis and Chilà 2015 put it, "the interpretation of the vowel of maximus as long is anything but certain" (p. 92). Allen thinks the long a is doubtful there (Allen 1978: 70). Forston argues the apex there could be a mark of the "final member of the phrase" (Weiss 209: ...


10

Indeed, it means [he] eats; it is a contracted form. It's not very common, nor extremely rare. Lewis & Short even call it "very frequent", which I think is an exaggeration: The contr. forms es, est, estis, etc., are very freq. in prose and poetry: "est", Vergil, Aeneid 4, 66; 5, 683; Horace, Satires 2, 2, 57


8

Filius, i means "son" Liberi (masc. plur.) means "children" and more precisely children of free people, i.e. not slaves. This family has 2 sons but 3 children. There probably is a daughter around somewhere.


8

The case of a relative pronoun indicates its role inside the subordinate clause, not the main clause. Since the servōs in the main clause are the subject of pārent in the subordinate clause, a nominative relative pronoun is needed: quī. If that seems strange, here are three considerations that can help make it seem normal: ​1. It works the same way in ...


7

Latin word order is very free, and the predicate — like est or sunt — can go anywhere. Any of these is valid: Gallia est in Europa. Gallia in Europa est. Est Gallia in Europa. Est in Europa Gallia. In Europa Gallia est. In Europa est Gallia. The most common choice is Gallia in Europa est (and SOV in general), but the rule — if any — ...


7

Relative pronouns (like quis/quis/quid) don't agree with their antecedents for case; instead, it gets that from its position in the subordinate clause. Note that they still agree in gender and number, since it's supposed to be a stand-in for the noun. Because the pronoun stands in for a nominative use, the subject of the clause -- i.e. "servi non parent" -- ...


6

As a first note, this particular phrase is taken with any emendations from Historiae Romanae Breviarum II.3. Here is John Selby Watson's (1886) translation of the same passage: But the office of military tribunes did not last long; for, after a short time, it was enacted that no more should be created; and four years passed in the state in such a manner ...


6

In this case, is, ea, id is a demonstrative pronoun (like hic, haec, hoc; ille, illa, illud; etc.). Allen & Greenough §297 says the following about is, ea, id: Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards ...


5

I've never seen a macron'd ā in maximus before. But the evidence is sparse on this matter; since the first syllable is always long by position, poetic meter doesn't tell us anything about the vowel quantity. Maximus comes from the root of magis, which is known to have a short a, and mājor, which had a heavy first syllable but was probably a short a and long ...


5

If you're asking if you can nest genitives, of course you can. This particular one is a bit extreme, and sounds more poetical to me, but the practice is fine. Compare Cicero's Republic 1.13.10: unius aetatis clarissimorum ac sapientissimorum nostrae civitatis virorum disputatio repetenda memoria est. Here, clarissimorum ac sapientissimorum modify virorum,...


5

After the latest change, the question has become less urgent, but I'll leave this answer up anyway. This is just ordinary ut + perfect "when", introducing a subordinate clause. Some editions have a semicolon: ...quibus tumultuariis certaminibus haud ferme plures Saguntini cadebant quam Poeni. Ut uero Hannibal ipse, dum murum incautius subit, aduersum ...


5

The same adjectives can be used for a river as for a road or path. The usual words for 'broad' and 'narrow' are latus and angustus, and for 'long' and 'short' are longus and brevis. Flumen magnum and flumen parvum mean pretty much what they do in English, a 'big/great river' and a 'small/minor river'. Various editions of the Gradus ad Parnassum (by Pyper, ...


5

The one piece of the puzzle you're missing is that impero takes a dative for the person being commanded: this explains victis, as agreeing with an implied "them" (sibi). Imperitatum is an impersonal passive: literally, "they believed it to have been commanded to them", i.e. "they believed they had been commanded". The syntactic issue here is that since ...


5

Strictly speaking, LLPSI doesn't require any particular pronunciation style: you're free to read the text in Reconstructed Classical, Ecclesiastical, Traditional English, or whichever you prefer! However, the vowel length markings are generally associated with Reconstructed Classical pronunciation. In Classical times, the long vowels (ā ē ī ō ū ȳ) were ...


4

Quamquam difficile sit, talem orationem a quodam auctore antiquiore esse scriptam annon comprobare, cum haud ornatis verbis utatur, mihi videtur illam potius ex Orbergi inventione quam ex operibus antiquis tolli, ex duobus rationibus, quarum altera practica, altera theoretica: Patet in contextu orationem hanc vocis passivae discendae causā scriptam ...


4

Incidentally, starting with Augustus, having three children was honorable and gave men "certain political advantages", whereas having less than three children "restricted a man's ability to accept inheritances and legacies" (Edmondson 2015: 576). See more on ius trium liberorum in Wikipedia or in Edmondson 2015.


4

Consider this a supplement to @brianpck's answer. This is an explanation of why making the possessive pronoun agree with the thing possessed and not the possessor makes sense in Latin. Agreement In Latin, as in all languages, we are mainly concerned with linking things we are talking about with concepts that describe them. This happens in two ways: ...


4

And a little more research shows the answer: "The choice of gender is determined by the noun possessed, and not by the gender of the person who possesses the object." So it is HIS villa, but the possessed noun is feminine, ergo the form of the pronoun is feminine. Got it! I must have missed that bit. Thanks to all that look. I for one really appreciate ...


4

This is a case where a word-by-word translation is misleading. If you translate is as "that", it makes more sense. And here you could translate it as "the". In Latin you can use is like an adjective (e.g. is locus), but in English you can't (e.g. "it place" doesn't make sense, but "the place", "that place", or "this place" does). The word is is not ...


4

Latin vowels can be short or long, and a macron is a sign that a vowel is long. Rōma has a macron over the O because the O in that word happens to be a long vowel. None of the vowels in Tiberis have a macron because all three vowels happen to be short. There's no particular reason why a given vowel is long or short, other than the history of the specific ...


3

In this Latin StackExchange, Ørberg's Lingua Latina has been voted the best method for learning Latin (How can I study Latin on my own?). It is used, for example, by the Dutch Latin teacher Caspar Porton (https://addisco.nl/blog/lingua-latina-per-se-illustrata-llpsi-hans-orberg.htm), the summer school in Madrid (http://www.culturaclasica.com/?q=caelum), ...


3

I would offer two options: …capitula a primo (usque) ad decimum… …chapters from the first one (all the way) to the tenth… Or: …a primo capitulo (usque) ad decimum… …from the first chapter one (all the way) to the tenth… I would not repeat the word capitulum twice unless I wanted more ...


3

Wheelock's Latin focuses mainly on grammar, and it explains it in an ordered manner and explicitly. Although it has translation exercises, they really don't give you the feeling that you are able to read. Lingva Latina, on the oder hand, gives you from the beginning the feeling that you are really interacting with the language and that you can read a text ...


3

To answer to your question directly: Why not vidēbam? Is it optional to use the imperfect here? Or does the perfect tense convey a distinction here, like "I saw him here several times in the past" vs. "I used to see him here often"? Just as you thought, imperfect is not compulsory because there is a distinction that may be made. You could actually use a ...


3

An adjective of number, a superlative or an emphatic adjective that describes the antecedent is often put in the relative clause (or "attracted to the Clause of the Relative", as Kennedy phrases it). The adjective will agree with the relative pronoun. Examples: si veniat Caesar cum copiis quas habet firmissimas if Caesar comes with the strongest ...


3

Here are the bare bones of the piece; I hope you can find your way from here. Good Luck. Priusquam digressus est (Temporal clause "Before he(Aeneas) set off...) Aeneas a rege Heleno quaesivit (Main clause "Aeneas inquired from King H...) quae pericula sibi vitanda essent.(Indirect question(subjunctive) "..what dangers there were) Ille Aenean ad... manu ...


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