44

Yes, they used swear words all the time! There's actually a whole book on the subject, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary by J. N. Adams. Cinaedus (the bad slang for a passive homosexual male), mentula (dick), and cunnus (cunt) are perhaps the most common and dirtiest insults. You can see on Wikipedia a larger list, too. There's actually a nice little poem—Catullus ...


17

Virgil is imitating a Greek construction here, or rather two Greek constructions: the middle voice and the accusative of respect. Greek had a "middle" voice, which in most tenses was formally identical with the passive, but did not have passive meaning; rather, it expressed actions in which the doer was also somehow affected by the action. It's hard to ...


15

Although it's possible that the verb est has been omitted here, as Adam says, I find it more likely that the sentence really is equivalent to Iūlius nōn sōlus habitat, sed cum Aemiliā et cum magnā familiā in vīllā habitat. Latin regulary uses adjectives in the nominative modifying the subject (and also in the accusative modifying the direct object) where ...


13

This is a really common stumbling block for those approaching Latin from the background of a language like English, so it merits a careful step-by-step explanation. I'll break my response into two steps: Adjectives agree in case, number, and gender with the noun they modify. Suus, -a, -um is an adjective. Adjectives agree with their nouns Let's start by ...


12

It's agreeing with sōlis, gen. sg. m.


12

On the one hand, we have MAX(IMO), A with an apex in CIL VI 2080 17 However, as De Angelis and Chilà 2015 put it, "the interpretation of the vowel of maximus as long is anything but certain" (p. 92). Allen thinks the long a is doubtful there (Allen 1978: 70). Forston argues the apex there could be a mark of the "final member of the phrase" (Weiss 209: ...


11

The the word ancilla and the names Syra and Aemilia are declined (rather than conjugated) according to the first declension, as shown in the following chart from Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar: The different forms of the declensions indicate the function of the nouns in a sentence. They often do the work of what we do with prepositional phrases. Rather ...


11

Here is one way to make sense of this: Think of esse as "to be" and abesse as "to be away". Then non procul est is "he is not far" and non procul abest is "he is not far away". The unprefixed version non procul est makes a statement about the location only, and the prefix ab- adds a tone of being away, out of reach, ...


11

Egressi Trojani is in the nominative because it's the subject of agerent. The structure of the sentence is a bit unusual, but it's clearer when you move the cum to its vanilla position before the egressi Trojani, since the whole thing is a subordinate cum causalis: Ibi, [cum egressi Trojani, quibus ab immenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et naves ...


10

Indeed, it means [he] eats; it is a contracted form. It's not very common, nor extremely rare. Lewis & Short even call it "very frequent", which I think is an exaggeration: The contr. forms es, est, estis, etc., are very freq. in prose and poetry: "est", Vergil, Aeneid 4, 66; 5, 683; Horace, Satires 2, 2, 57


10

Graecus, -a, -um is an adjective “Greek”, put in the ablative plural Graecis to agree with the ablative plural noun oppidis: “In (the) Greek towns.” Italia is a noun “Italy”; Italiae is the genitive singular: “In (the) gardens of Italy.” Genitive nouns don’t show any agreement in Latin, so only hortis is marked for ablative plural. The same goes for “In ...


10

The i in videt is short. The length of a vowel in classical Latin pronunciation is defined by its duration—its "quantity"—as opposed to its "quality", i.e. the nature of the sound: its waveform or timbre. But first let's have a look at short-vowel quality, since that seems to be the focus of your question. Then we'll come back to rhythm ...


10

You are correct, this is a passive infinitive: "to be counted". The passive versions of amāre, habēre, currere, and audīre are amārī, habērī, currī, and audīrī.


9

Filius, i means "son" Liberi (masc. plur.) means "children" and more precisely children of free people, i.e. not slaves. This family has 2 sons but 3 children. There probably is a daughter around somewhere.


9

According to Döderlein's Hand-book of Latin Synonymes (also here), canere is the more general term for music (and thus may be used for singing), whereas cantare usually is used more specifically to refer to vocal music: Canere (from καναχεῖν) means, in the most general sense, to make music, voce, tibiis, fidibus, like μέλπειν; cantare, with vocal music, ...


8

Latin vowels can be short or long, and a macron is a sign that a vowel is long. Rōma has a macron over the O because the O in that word happens to be a long vowel. None of the vowels in Tiberis have a macron because all three vowels happen to be short. There's no particular reason why a given vowel is long or short, other than the history of the specific ...


8

The case of a relative pronoun indicates its role inside the subordinate clause, not the main clause. Since the servōs in the main clause are the subject of pārent in the subordinate clause, a nominative relative pronoun is needed: quī. If that seems strange, here are three considerations that can help make it seem normal: ​1. It works the same way in ...


8

An urbs is a city, an oppidum is a town. It is quite common to use urbs to refer specifically to Rome, and the linked dictionary entry even says that oppidum is used for other cities than Rome. You could say that urbs is a capital and oppidum is a regular city. There are a number of ways to phrase and see it, but the crux is: urbs is bigger (in size or ...


7

Relative pronouns (like quis/quis/quid) don't agree with their antecedents for case; instead, it gets that from its position in the subordinate clause. Note that they still agree in gender and number, since it's supposed to be a stand-in for the noun. Because the pronoun stands in for a nominative use, the subject of the clause -- i.e. "servi non parent" -- ...


7

Latin word order is very free, and the predicate — like est or sunt — can go anywhere. Any of these is valid: Gallia est in Europa. Gallia in Europa est. Est Gallia in Europa. Est in Europa Gallia. In Europa Gallia est. In Europa est Gallia. The most common choice is Gallia in Europa est (and SOV in general), but the rule — if any — ...


7

In Latin, it's fairly common to stick prepositions onto the fronts of verbs to create new shades of meaning. Sometimes the new meaning is the same as the verb plus the preposition (advenīre is basically the same as venīre ad), sometimes it's just plain intensive (dēplorāre is just plorāre but stronger), and sometimes it creates a new meaning different from ...


7

Actually, this is not so much a case of missing esse, but of praedicative use of an adjectival word. Adjectives (solus), but also participles, can be used such that they agree with a nominal group (Iulius), while telling you something about the praedicate as a whole (Iulius non [habitat]), not just about the nominal group. This is also possible in other Indo-...


7

This is indeed the conjunction cum "when" (from Old Latin quom), separate from the preposition cum "with" (from Old Latin com). I'm not quite sure why the verbs are passive EDIT: d_e in the comments has pointed out that moveō is generally transitive, so for a sort of "middle voice" meaning, the passive makes sense: When a bird ...


6

I've never seen a macron'd ā in maximus before. But the evidence is sparse on this matter; since the first syllable is always long by position, poetic meter doesn't tell us anything about the vowel quantity. Maximus comes from the root of magis, which is known to have a short a, and mājor, which had a heavy first syllable but was probably a short a and long ...


6

In this Latin StackExchange, Ørberg's Lingua Latina has been voted the best method for learning Latin (How can I study Latin on my own?). It is used, for example, by the Dutch Latin teacher Caspar Porton (https://addisco.nl/blog/lingua-latina-per-se-illustrata-llpsi-hans-orberg.htm), the summer school in Madrid (http://www.culturaclasica.com/?q=caelum), ...


6

In this case, is, ea, id is a demonstrative pronoun (like hic, haec, hoc; ille, illa, illud; etc.). Allen & Greenough §297 says the following about is, ea, id: Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards ...


6

As a first note, this particular phrase is taken with any emendations from Historiae Romanae Breviarum II.3. Here is John Selby Watson's (1886) translation of the same passage: But the office of military tribunes did not last long; for, after a short time, it was enacted that no more should be created; and four years passed in the state in such a manner ...


6

Strictly speaking, LLPSI doesn't require any particular pronunciation style: you're free to read the text in Reconstructed Classical, Ecclesiastical, Traditional English, or whichever you prefer! However, the vowel length markings are generally associated with Reconstructed Classical pronunciation. In Classical times, the long vowels (ā ē ī ō ū ȳ) were ...


6

The best list to memorize before reading each chapter of LLPSI is this: Seriously, you heard wrong. The whole point of Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata is to learn each word from context. It's called "the natural method" because it teaches Latin the way you learn your native language (just faster and more streamlined): from context, always from context, ...


6

I've heard it said that it takes about 10 years of study to gain a real facility at reading Latin. My own experience bears this out. That said, with a good dictionary and a lot of hard work, you ought to be able to struggle through a typical Latin text after studying a year. I think Oerberg's course is as good an introductory course as any. It can be ...


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