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13

The differences aren't really too intense, fortunately. Here are the big ones: β, δ, γ, φ, θ, χ are fricatives in Modern Greek but plosives in Ancient Greek. If you substitute one for the other, nothing much really changes: my introductory Greek professor was from Greece and used the fricative pronunciation, and we understood him just fine. Homer's Greek ...


12

If a word begins with a diphthong, the breathing sign is written over the second vowel letter. "Haimylioi" is correct.


10

There is a little-known rule of epic scansion in which, optionally, a word-initial sonorant (the nasals μ ν and the liquids ρ λ) may cause a preceding short vowel to scan long. Here's another example, Odyssey 18.399: μνηστῆρες δ᾽ ὁμάδησαν ἀνὰ μέγαρα σκιόεντα -- where the second syllable of ἀνά scans long because of the following μ-. The explanation for ...


5

fdb is absolutely correct (+1), but to address this part of your question: does ἱ after α affect the pronunciation? The answer is, yes, it absolutely does! In (most dialects of) Ancient Greek, there were fourteen vowels (*): α, ε, η, ι, ο, ω, υ are written with single letters αι, ει, οι, υι, αυ, ευ, ου are written with double letters The vowels in the ...


5

The most likely answer is that 'Ulixes' arrived in Rome (so to speak) before the Odyssey did. In Franz Altheim's A History of Roman Religion, he writes: Older still [than the fifth-century BC legend of Aeneas] was the appearance of Odysseus in Italy. Even in Rome Odysseus is an early figure. All the more significant is it that he cannot have got there ...


4

Homer does have meter. Whether or not it's worth it to learn how to read Homer's poetry aloud with meter is a matter of opinion; you'll have to decide for yourself. I think that native Greek speakers learning Homer typically give the usual modern Greek pronunciations to the letters and letter combinations (I don't know Greek at all, so don't take my word for ...


4

According to Karl Otfried Müller, Odysseus and Ulysses are versions of the same name being passed down by two different races. On the one hand, Ulysses or Ulixes (also written Οὐλίξου) was the name spoken by the descendents of the Sicels (or Sicilians), the original inhabitants of Sicily. Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς), on the other hand, comes to us from the Etruscans,...


4

Admittedly this isn't Homer, but it might still be useful. A TLG search (surprisingly) comes up with only two relevant sentences, both from Plato: Theaetetus 204b-c has the numbers up to six in the neuter gender: ἕν, δύο, τρία, τέτταρα, πέντε, ἕξ One, two, three, four, five, six Timaeus 17a counts up to three with the masculine gender: εἷς, δύο, τρεῖς: ὁ ...


3

All words beginning with a vowel are marked with a 'breathing.' This looks like a single inverted comma. When the breathing is 'rough' (aspirate) it is c shaped < ;when the breathing is 'smooth' the inverted comma is reversed > . In the case of αἱμύλιοι the aspirate, the rough breathing, has been placed over the second letter of the vowel pair αἱ. The ...


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