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20

First, Galilaee sounds right. See this question about the vocative of Gnaeus for details. There are situations where one finds -ee- in Latin without the first e belonging to ae. What I found is not word-final, but I assume that is not important for your question. There are forms of deesse and deerrare, and if the diphthong ae is included, also forms of ...


12

The Vulgata is full with proper nouns having double -ee, specially as endings (e.g. Bersabee, Phacee, Osee). I imagine you are not particularly interested in these. Below are all the other words I could find: deest, deerunt, deessent, deerit, deerant, etc. E.g. Nm 21:5 locutusque contra Deum et Moysen, ait : Cur eduxisti nos de Ægypto, ut moreremur in ...


11

Any syllable containing a long vowel is heavy, but not all heavy syllables contain long vowels. Syllabification is a fairly abstract concept, so unfortunately, there are multiple conflicting descriptions of Latin syllabification. I believe that among present-day linguists, the most common analysis would be that a syllable is heavy either (a) if it contains a ...


11

The following is based mostly on Clackson and Horrocks 2007/2011, Leumann 1977, and Wallace 2011. First of all, something to keep in mind, as Weiss 2009/2011 puts it, is that "Long vowels were generally not distinguished in Latin orthography" (p. 29; emphasis mine - Alex B.). That being said, there were four exceptions. Geminatio vocalium (the double ...


10

Whether or not this is how the forms really developed, this is how I organize it in my head. And it has proven quite efficient, so I consider it a good description of what classical Latin conjugation is even if it fails to describe where it comes from. First, the theme vowels in conjugations 1, 2, and 4 are long: ā, ē, ī. The vowel i in ...


10

v and u There are some minimal pairs between [w] and [u]. All of the examples that I have found so far involve words that contain the perfect formative [u] preceded by a sonorant and followed by a vowel: volvit (volvo) and vŏlŭit (vŏlo) solvit (solvo) and sŏlŭit (sŏlĕo) calvī (calvus) and călŭī (călĕo) alvī (alvus) and ălŭī (ălo) salvī (salvus) and ...


8

Very few words contain "ei" as a diphthong. The exact list of examples depends on what you call a "diphthong" (e.g. whether you include words with synizesis or geminate semivowels). Possible examples include deinde, dein, deinceps, rei, spei. The Old Latin diphthong ei (which was the outcome of older ai and oi in non-initial syllables) ...


8

The answer to your question is simple and difficult at the same time. As Christian Lehmann (Lehmann 2010) puts it rather succinctly, "A light syllable is one ending in a short vowel; all other syllables are heavy." Lehmann, C. (2005). Latin syllable structure in typological perspective, Journal of Latin Linguistics, 9(1), 127-148. doi: https://...


8

A syllable is can be heavy in two ways. It is heavy by nature if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong. It is heavy by position if the vowel is followed by a "consonant cluster". If neither happens, the syllable is light. It can also be heavy for both of the two reasons. The irregularities have to do with what "consonant cluster" means. Mostly, it means ...


8

Here is metric evidence in support of three syllables. I went through all occurrences of mortuu- in Vergil(ius) and Ovid(ius), and I found no occurrences that would require scanning mortuus or mortuum as a two-syllable word. Such situations are possible, so absence of such evidence is evidence to the contrary. The examples below require three syllables to ...


8

I looked up the Greek word in the etymological dictionaries of Chantraine and Beekes. They both say that your hypothesis #1 (an Oscan loan) was indeed proposed by Cuny in 1908, but that this was rejected by Niedermann in a 1917 Indogermanische Forschungen article, which can be viewed here. Niedermann says, if I understand correctly, that the specific meaning ...


7

Weiss writes that "The u-forms are characteristic of legal and archaizing style, e.g. pecuniae repetundae (the recovery of extorted money), and are found in the isolated forms secundus 'following' and rotundus 'round' (p. 444; emphasis mine - Alex B.). Powell 2007/2011 adds that even though "the gerundive suffix in -undus, rather than -endus, has an old-...


7

Yes, this is still considered valid. The proto-Italic word is reconstructed as *χem-ō, χe/om-on-m. de Vaan has the best summary:


7

If this question has an answer, the most likely answer is "No, they don't". But in my opinion, the question is not really meaningful. As far as I know, things like the [ej] in "ejus" were not traditionally categorized as diphthongs (I’m not entirely sure though). The answer is "No" from at least one modern perspective. If ...


7

Alpha privative was short in Ancient Greek, as shown in Smyth (1920) §885 (a long vowel would have been written with a macron, rendered on the Perseus website as an underscore after the vowel). Alpha from PIE syllabic n was short as a general rule.


7

Rarely ee can be used as geminatio vocalium, i.e. to denote that the e is pronounced long. This was mainly used in Oscan and sometimes borrowed to Latin. For example leege in this inscription: Vediovei patrei / genteiles Iuliei // Vedi[ov]ei aara // Leege Albana dicata (aara also denotes long a). M. Loporcaro in Vowel Length from Latin to Romance notes ...


6

The diphthong ei is found before vowels: eius, peior. The intervocalic i is typically geminated (see this question about I and J) so that eius is pronounced like /ej.jus/ which is practically the same as /ei.jus/. I find it most reasonable to see this ei as a diphthong. I am not aware of occurrences before a consonant. This is quite similar to ui appearing ...


6

The υ of ἀπύ (also attested in Arcado-Cypriot, which is the most conservative group of Greek dialects and often shows similarities with Mycenaean) is a secondary development within the Greek dialects, and not inherited from Indo-European. This is shown by many cognates which reflect o, e.g. Hitt. appā, Skt. apa, Russ. po. So it's unlikely to be related to ...


5

Lewis and Short give only three Latin words ending in -oo, all of them verbs: boare/boere, "to cry" reboare, "to echo" (the previous one with re-) inchoare, an alternative spelling of incohare Apart from boere, these are all first conjugation verbs and their present stem ends in a. They are not what you asked for, but they seem to be the closest thing ...


5

In Latin, the rule is simply that the connecting -i- does not appear before a vowel, as in your magn-animus, or using a third-declension adjective (like rapax): grandaevus "aged" < grandi- "great" + aevum "age" So rapacatrox seems to be correct. The exception is that the -i- does appear when the first word is monosyllabic, e.g.: triennium "three-...


5

decido and decisio(nem) both have a long i in the second syllable. I do not understand why you think these words are evidence for a "trisyllabic laxing" in Latin.


5

An interesting discussion. Re aqua, it is a thorny problem. There are two (indirectly three) cases in Lucretius (and, save for an anonymous tragic line and an anonymous inscription, in Lucretius alone) where aqua cannot be scanned in the usual disyllabic way: 6.552 fit quoque, ubi in magnas aquae uastasque lacunas where aquae must either be anapaestic or ...


4

It would be strange if Latin had diphthongs that could only appear before /j/ -- why the arbitrary restriction? The examples you mention seem to be most naturally analyzed as containing a geminate /j:/ preceded by a short vowel.


4

To clarify a little more. In Gramatica Latina (latin grammar) by Santiago Segura: Participe of passive future: It is also called verbal adjective in -NDUS and gerundive and is formed by adding to the present theme the suffix -ND-US, -ND-A, -ND-UM, sometimes by -e- (3rd and 4th conjugation): ama- ndus, -a, -um; dele-nd-us, -a, -um; leg-e-nd-us, -a, -um; cap-...


4

According to Vine's "The Morphology of Italic", all the infinitive endings originated with the third/consonant conjugation, and were extrapolated from there. Many consonant-stem verbs in Latin used to share a root with an S-stem noun: in other words, the verb was formed by putting (thematic) verb endings directly on the PIE root, and the noun was formed ...


4

Weiss writes that “there was no general anaptyxis between a consonant and u” (p. 145). The outcome is different and seems to be unpredictable. In some cases Cu > Cu or CC or C: equus (*h1ekuos), Minerva (*menesua) sollus (*soluos); probus (*probhuos), suavis (*suaduis); Weiss 2009/2011 adds that “*tu apparently did become *tuu with gemination of the t if ...


3

I don't think we can know for certain, but the fact that the spelling "filii" occurred makes it likely that the word was perceived as having three syllables, and was so treated in poetry. There are various possibilities of how it was actually pronounced: 1) A single extra-long vowel, [i::], in which case the spelling represents perception only. 2) It's ...


3

There are certainly verbs whose stems end (or used to end) in -i- and -u-, but what would contraction with a following stem vowel mean? "Contraction" here should be expected to result in a rising diphthong: -ye/o- or -we/o-. but these would be transformed according to well-known phonological principles within Greek: For /u/, consider on one hand the form ...


3

According to Yellow Sky's description (which lacks citations but lines up with all the words I can think of), the suffix -vus (from PIE *-wós) has three different forms: -vus after A, E, I, O, L, or R -us after U or V, including QV -uus after anything else Since mort- ends with a T, it falls into the "anything else" category, and the two-syllable suffix -...


3

vesper (m.) occurs both as an -o stem (gen. vesperi) and as a consonant stem (gen. vesperis), and then there is the -ā stem vespera (fem.) with the same meaning. The verb vesperasco is formed from the latter.


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