14

No, there are plenty of ancient Greek words that have μπ and ντ in there somewhere. Two common words off the top of my head are ἀντί and πέμπω, thoroughly attested throughout ancient Greek. If you want to see all the ancient Greek words that merely start with ἀντ-, you can start here and scroll through many scores of entries. What you won't see, though, are ...


13

Yes, it is Koine instead of modern Greek. You can tell by some of the additional marks around the letters: Koine Greek has breathing marks, while modern does not. Both rough and smooth breathing marks appear on the page. There are three different accent marks in Koine Greek, whereas modern has only one. All three variants appear on the page. There are ...


12

Koiné Greek & earlier lacked initial <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> although these strings are commonplace word-internally. There are however a small number of Modern Greek words beginning <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> that are inherited from Koiné Greek or earlier Originally, the letters <β>, <δ>, & <γ> were used to ...


11

As Mounce said, it's important to learn the articles of all the nouns because it's not always obvious what they should be from just the lexical form. A good example of that is ἡ ἔρημος (the desert, wilderness) which is a second declension noun. Most second declension nouns are masculine and have ὁ for the article, but ἡ ἔρημος is feminine and takes the ...


10

C M Weimer is completely correct, but to add on a bit: The reason ΜΠ and ΝΤ are used for /b/ and /d/ nowadays is because, historically, the voiced stops Β Δ Γ turned into fricatives, and then later the unvoiced stops Π Τ Κ got voiced after nasals. When Greek-speakers heard /b/ in words like Turkish bakkal, the closest equivalent in their language was the ...


10

Whether a relative pronoun is ‘needed’ depends, in part, on how the participles ἔχων and ἐξηραμμένην are functioning. ἐξηραμμένην (withered) is functioning as a verbal adjective, modifying τὴν χεῖρα (the hand). In English, we can say “the hand was withered”, "the hand that was withered", or simply “the withered hand”. So, the first thing we can ...


6

The stem can't always be derived from the lexical form. For example, in the third declension, the nominative singular (i.e. the lexical form) is usually formed by adding an -s, which often obscures the end of the stem: glauc-s > glaux, onych-s > onyx, pteryg-s > pteryx tapēt-s > tapēs, Tyrinth-s > Tyrins, pod-s > pous clōp-s > clōps, katēliph-s > katēlips, ...


6

Greek loves its participles, and often uses participles where English would use relative clauses. This sometimes leads to multiple participles in a single phrase, as here: καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα. and there was a man having [better English, "who had"] a withered hand. It wouldn't be wrong to use ὁς with a finite verb ...


6

It's not the case that all Greek verbs with thematic presents form thematic aorists, nor that all verbs with athematic presents form athematic aorists. There are exceptions both ways: for example γιγνώσκω, ἔγνων, but on the other hand δείκνυμι, ἔδειξα. Smyth §687 gives a list of the first type of verbs. As with many common Greek verbs, this is an ...


6

As best I can tell, this is due to a mild case of suppletion. In Classical Greek, the verb system hadn't gotten as thoroughly regularized as it was in e.g. Latin (with its four-and-a-half nicely-delineated conjugations); different systems of the "same" verb could come from different Proto-Indo-European constructions, like with πείθω's two different ...


6

Welcome to the site! I'm afraid there isn't exactly one way to rule them all. But there are various phonological rules by which you can guess the roots of a significant number of verbs. For example, -(i)sk, -nu, and -an are common present suffixes, so cut them off if you want to find the root. The -an- suffix is in the present manthanô (root math-); -nu is ...


5

Greek verbs have six principal parts, meaning that to be able to conjugate a verb in all of its tenses, you need to know all six different roots with their conjugations. Sometimes the roots used in each principal part are identical (e.g. with λύω), sometimes similar (e.g. λείπω), and sometimes (as you already acknowledge) entirely different (e.g. λέγω). Here ...


5

Your translations are both quite good, but there are a few inaccuracies, especially in the first passage. In the first passage, there isn't anything in the Greek corresponding to "strut and preen"; φοιτάω is simply to visit regularly or frequent. διατριβή, as you note, is literally simply a pastime of any kind, but the LSJ entry (section A2d) gives ...


5

A small correction to a near mis-statement in the question. (I'm a native MG speaker.) μπ and ντ are not always pronounced as [b] and [d]! In fact, the "traditional" pronunciation is [mb] and [nd], and is alive and probably well, ... but perhaps on the way out. See cite below. Ακουμπώ [Akoumbo] (touch); Κόμπος [kombos] (knot); γαμπρός [ghambros] (...


4

The short version of my answer is yes, I believe it's safe to say that temptatio and temptation with respect to its modern secular usage can be, for the most part, considered false friends. However, before I get to that, consider the meaning of the word which was translated as temptation in the passage in question, i.e., Matthew 6:13. The word tentationem ...


4

It's Koine Greek. Top right, second line you see the word οὗτος, it's not used in modern Greek. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=ou(=tos


4

The earliest example of rhyme in Greek that I was able to find is from Gorgias, who deliberately used rhyme in his rhetoric: "In the fifth century BC the sophist Gorgias used such blatant rhyme effcts that the audience, anticipating the rhymes, shouted them out in advance..." Michael McKie An example of Gorgias' use of rhyme is quoted in ...


2

I won't venture a Koine translation, but if it's useful, here's another Attic version: οὐκ ἐρῶμεν τῇ Ἑλένῃ διὰ τί αὐτὴν μόνην ἐν τῷ αἰγιαλῷ κατελίπομεν· εἰσῆλθε γὰρ εἰς τὸ ἐμπόριον ὁ πρεσβύτης περὶ οὗ χθὲς ἑσπέρας διελεγόμεθα ἐρωτῶν εἰ Χαρίκλειαν γιγνώσκοιμεν. (I changed "why we could leave her" to "why we left her" since I wasn't sure ...


1

There are numerous sites that have the koine text, includi g biblehub, which, when you click on gr for greek, will give several koine texts. There are also youtube channels that use Scrivener's textus receptus, which is in koine. The pronouciation is typically modern, but that isn't necessarily a bad thing. Frankly, the reconstructed pronunciation sounds ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible