14

No, there are plenty of ancient Greek words that have μπ and ντ in there somewhere. Two common words off the top of my head are ἀντί and πέμπω, thoroughly attested throughout ancient Greek. If you want to see all the ancient Greek words that merely start with ἀντ-, you can start here and scroll through many scores of entries. What you won't see, though, are ...


12

Koiné Greek & earlier lacked initial <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> although these strings are commonplace word-internally. There are however a small number of Modern Greek words beginning <μπ>, <ντ>, or <γκ> that are inherited from Koiné Greek or earlier Originally, the letters <β>, <δ>, & <γ> were used to ...


10

C M Weimer is completely correct, but to add on a bit: The reason ΜΠ and ΝΤ are used for /b/ and /d/ nowadays is because, historically, the voiced stops Β Δ Γ turned into fricatives, and then later the unvoiced stops Π Τ Κ got voiced after nasals. When Greek-speakers heard /b/ in words like Turkish bakkal, the closest equivalent in their language was the ...


5

A small correction to a near mis-statement in the question. (I'm a native MG speaker.) μπ and ντ are not always pronounced as [b] and [d]! In fact, the "traditional" pronunciation is [mb] and [nd], and is alive and probably well, ... but perhaps on the way out. See cite below. Ακουμπώ [Akoumbo] (touch); Κόμπος [kombos] (knot); γαμπρός [ghambros] (...


2

I don't have an authoritative source for this (I'm just drawing on my own experience), but given that this has gone several months without answers, I'll offer what I can. The fundamental difference between the tonos and the oxia, in usage, is that the oxia contrasts with other accents while the tonos doesn't. Both of them mark the position of the accent in ...


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