It's an alternate form of ave; the L&S entry gives a couple of examples.
Presumably this form arose through hypercorrection: since h was generally not pronounced in popular speech, confusion easily arose about which words did and did not contain it. Catullus makes fun of a certain Arrius who inserted h's where they weren't needed.
This comes from the Book of Hours, and is the first part of the prayers at terce.
Deus in adiutorium meum intende.
Domine ad adiuvandum me festina.
Gloria P[atri, et Filio: et Spiritui sancto.]
Sicut erat [in principio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum, Amen. Alleluia.]
Memento salutis auctor.
The other answers are good for explaining the grammar. However, I would add that an important part of translating any text is remembering the context in which the passage was written. (I realize that the other answerers probably subscribe to this platitude as well.)
So, let's look at the opening lines of the psalm (taken from Douay-Rheims):
'Why' isn't usually a good question for these types of things, because the answer is often "just because." The Greek isn't typical, but it does have a parallel with o-contracted words like νοῦς, περίπλους, or (neuter) κανοῦν.
Nominative Ἰησοῦς νοῦς
Genitive Ἰησοῦ νοῦ
Dative Ἰησοῖ/Ἰησοῦ νῷ
Accusative Ἰησοῦν νοῦν
The phrase is confusing if one assumes that missa is a perfect passive participle, since it has no obvious antecedent. The ending dialogue of the (Pauline/Novus Ordo) mass goes,
V: Benedicat vos Omnipotens Deus: Pater, Filius et Spiritus Sanctus.
V: Ite, missa est.
R: Deo gratias.
One could guess that it is the benedictio that is ...
Yes, it is Koine instead of modern Greek.
You can tell by some of the additional marks around the letters:
Koine Greek has breathing marks, while modern does not. Both rough and smooth breathing marks appear on the page.
There are three different accent marks in Koine Greek, whereas modern has only one. All three variants appear on the page.
There are ...
Christus Apostolos misit ... illis Evangelii nuntiandi praebens mandatum
Praebens is a participle modifying Christus: "Christ sent the apostles ... giving...". All the other words you marked depend on praebens.
The dative illis is the recipient of praebens: "giving them".
The neuter past participle mandatum is used as a noun and is the object of praebens: ...
The Wiki translation is bad in several ways (the first line is missing the word "change"; the infinitives are not good Latin; the verbs in the relative clauses should be subjunctive; and the word choices are mostly unidiomatic translationese). Here's an attempt:
O deus / domine, dona mihi animi aequitatem, ut quae mutare non possim, clementer feram; ac ...
The Baronius press edition is going (rightly so, I think) for elegance of English rather than absolute correct correspondence to Latin grammar. Conversus is a little tricky here, because while it's technically, as you say, a perfect passive participle, there's also a sense in which it's neither passive nor active but middle, which is a voice from ancient ...
Note, in your Etymonline citation, that the word originally came into English with the meaning of "intercessory plea or prayer", rather than "vote"; that meaning wasn't established in English until the early 16th century.
The Catholic prayer known as the Memorare contains suffragium as well:
Memorare, O piissima Virgo Maria,
non esse auditum a saeculo, ...
Divus is a term used to refer to Roman deities or highly esteemed individuals (e.g. emperors). L&S give some classic Latin quotes, and you can also see books about Divus Augustus, Divus Titus, Divus Claudius, and etc.
Now, as many things in Christianity inherited from Roman customs and language, it seems divos was also used for saints....
Here are the Vulgate versions of the two verses you mention:
quoniam in ipso condita sunt universa in cælis, et in terra, visibilia, et invisibilia, sive throni, sive dominationes, sive principatus, sive potestates: omnia per ipsum et in ipso creata sunt
In ipso enim vivimus, et movemur, et sumus: sicut et quidam ...
This is the big question! Genitives can be either subjective or objective, and sometimes it's impossible to know which one a genitive is.
Subjective genitives are the subject of the genitive. If this were a subjective genitive, it would mean more "Christ's love", i.e. the love that Christ has and gives.
Objective genitives are the object of the genitive. (...
This is most certainly a Hebraism. Compare to 2 Sam 7:14:
ego ero ei in patrem et ipse erit mihi in filium
In the Hebrew, we have:
אֲנִי֙ אֶהְיֶה־לּ֣וֹ לְאָ֔ב וְה֖וּא יִהְיֶה־לִּ֣י לְבֵ֑ן
Note the duplication of the "לּ֣" preposition, which is alternatively translated with a dative and with in + accusative. I am not an expert in Hebrew, and cannot ...
I think it helps to look at two different commentaries on this verse. First we'll reproduce the Greek, and then the commentaries on the Greek.
εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ θεός Ἄφρων, ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ τὴν ψυχήν σου αἰτοῦσιν ἀπὸ σοῦ· ἃ δὲ ἡτοίμασας, τίνι ἔσται;
Westcott and Hort 1881
The first commentator is A.T. Robertson.
Thou foolish one (aprwn). Fool, for ...
There is a longstanding view that the interjection ave is not the imperative of the verb aveo “to long for”, but is a loan from Punic ḥawe (tentative vocalisation), the imperative of the Semitic verb ḥ-w-h “to live”. The first attestations are in Plautus, who also uses the plural havo (=Punic ḥawū) three times in his Poenulus. If this is true, then have ...
Your translation is close!
Here is a letter for letter transcription of the image, except there is a line over "ΘΣ" in the second line:
Κύριε ὁ θ(εὸ)ς τοῦ ἁγίου Κοσμᾶ κ(αὶ) Δαμιανοῦ, ἐλέησον τὸν τριβοῦνον Δαγίσθεον καὶ ...
This comes from Dom Prosper Guéranger's Explanation of the Prayers and Ceremonies of Holy Mass:
ITE MISSA EST.
These words are usually translated thus: “Go, the Mass is said.”
However, we must here observe that this is not their proper sense.
This formula, adopted by the Church, was in general use amongst the
Romans, in public assemblies, to ...
The verse John 3:16 makes use of two grammatical topics which are important in both Greek and Latin: a result clause and a purpose clause. According to this, the verse can be logically divided in two. I will first treat your handling of the result clause ('For God so loved the world, that he gave his only son') and then, if I find time, I will edit this ...
I agree with C. M. Weimer's answer that no Latin translation of "Χριστός" was regularly used in a devotional context.
Here is a more explicitly worded Christian source from Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 636) that translates the name as Unctus:
Multis etiam modis Christus appellari in scripturis invenitur divinis. Nam ipse Dei Patris Unigenitus filius, ...
The verb est is omitted but implied. The motto is taken from the start of Psalm 27 (or 26):
Dominus illuminatio mea et salus mea; quem timebo?
Dominus protector vitae meae; a quo trepidabo?
The Lord is my source of light and my salvation; whom shall I fear?
The Lord is the protector of my life; by whom shall I be made to tremble?
Putting in the ...
The second person plural form is elevatĭs, "you lift".
However, in the passage you quote it is elevatīs, which is a plural ablative of the perfect participle.
It is in the same form as oculis, which is a hint.
Oculis is not an accusative, so the translation "lift your eyes" doesn't quite make sense with "eyes" as the object.
What you have here ...
This inscription does not use spacing to separate words. (Word division was often not marked consistently, or not marked at all in Roman inscriptions.) The second and third lines actually say "IN DEO VIVAS". "IN" is a preposition (meaning "in"), "DEO" is a noun ("god/God") in the ablative case, and "VIVAS" is a verb ("live") in the second-person singular ...
I don't know about that late a period, but the two dictionaries available on Perseus project give this as one definition for suffragium:
B. In gen., a decision, judgment, opinion: “rhetor suffragio tuo et compotorum tuorum,” Cic. Phil. 2, 17, 42: “(apes) concorde suffragio deterrimos (reges) necant,” Plin. 11, 16, 16, § 51.—
In partic., a ...
You're close on the Latin, but your endings are wrong:
Iesus Christus Filius Dei Salvator
If you wanted to, you could even switch the F and the D:
Iesus Christus Dei Filius Salvator
I don't really like the acronym either gives, though.
Depending on when in the Middle Ages you're talking about, you still would see an initial I. J was used to ...
This seems related to Latin language only per accidens.
I'm not a theologian, but I think I know the basics from a Catholic POV.
I'll try to answer in the order you put the questions:
What does this mean exactly?
Translations to modern languages vary, but some of them say Christ was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit. Conception needs the ...
The word solus is a little ambiguous.
While it has been discussed before (here and here), the topic is certainly not exhausted.
I can think of several translations of sola fide:
By means of the only faith
Only by means of (a) faith
By means of (a/the) lonely faith
For comparison, observe the effect of articles in the following, all of which could ...
Here is a transcription starting from the first initial with only a few lacunae. I've mostly filled in the abbreviations and added punctuation, except when I didn't.
Cumque Anolinus huiuscemodi litteras accepisset, palam recitavit, sibique Nazarium offerri iussit. Dixitque ad eum, "Iussit inclitus imperator incidi cervices tuas pariter et puerorum ...
What you see is a symptom of English and Latin having grammatically different idiomatic expressions for things like that.
I cannot find a perfectly literal translation, but perhaps this series of attempts sheds some more light1:
Deus tu conversus vivificabis nos.
You God, having been turned, will quicken us.
You God, when turned, will quicken us.
If I may supplement TKR's answer:
Colossians 1:16 is decidedly ambiguous. The Greek original has:
ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα, τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα, εἴτε θρόνοι εἴτε κυριότητες εἴτε ἀρχαὶ εἴτε ἐξουσίαι τὰ πάντα δι᾽αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται
which the Vulgate renders as:
quoniam in ipso condita sunt universa in ...