Rather that being idiomatic, it's just a question of style. The Vulgate's translation is simply a little more verbose than the English or even the original Greek.
It can be translated from the Vulgate word for word into English as:
For what is the foolishness of God is wiser than human [wisdom], and
what is the weakness of God is stronger than human [...
It looks like a comparative (cf. facilius, melius, and many others) but it is in fact a genitive.
Thus unius libri is "of one book".
The word unus has an unusual declension:
nom: unus, una, unum
acc: unum, unam, unum
abl: uno, una, uno
The same genitive in -ius is used by a couple of pronouns.
There is no comparative form of ...
Let me mention some things to complement your and TKR's lists.
First, the adjectives iuvenis and senex have the irregular comparatives iunior and senior.
These comparatives are rarely (if ever) used in neuter.
Neither adjective has a superlative.
For senex, the superlative can be replaced by that of vetustus (vetustissimus).
For vetus, comparatives and ...
I think I understand the root of your confusion, and the simple answer to your question:
Why don't both sides of the quam agree?
Is this: They do agree.
I am more like you than he.
A first point is that similis usually takes the genitive (though it can also take the dative), e.g. "similis eius" = "similar to him." When in doubt with quam, you can ...
In your title you ask if "fame" is a predicate nominative, and the answer to that question is no. A predicate nominative involves the linking of a noun with the subject via a copula (usually a form of "to be" or "to become").
Based on the body of your question, I suspect that your real question is what case would best be used to translate fame. The answer ...
There are two constructions you may use. The first is this. The comparative adjective plus (plural: plures, plura), which means "more", combined with quam ("than"). The two things being compared are put in the same case. In the first, third, and fourth sentences, the subject "He" would be in the nominative, thus "suus amicus" follows suit.
In the last two ...
We can semantically distinguish an adjective or adverb from a participle. Adjectives and adverbs have no dynamic or temporal force. They cannot take an accusative or clause as their object. They merely describe what they modify. Only such descriptions can take degrees of comparison.
Participles that retain any of their dynamic force cannot be made ...
I used corpus searches to constrain the possibility of participle comparison.
Here are the observations:
Superlative of future participle:
The only words with -turissim- are forms of maturissimus.
No hits with -surissim- or -xurissim-.
Comparative of future participle:
Searching for -turior- returns a number of forms of maturior, one promunturiorum, one ...
The two parts of the exercise are two different statements.
The first holds the speaker (the subject) to be more like the addressee than someone else is. This becomes obvious if you add ‘is’ to the end of the sentence: ‘I am more like you than he is’.
The second holds that he (the speaker) is more like the addressee than he (the speaker) is like someone ...
This phenomenon is not unique to comparatives.
For example, the genitives of tempus and lepus are temporis and leporis, while you might expect tempusis and lepusis.
You can simply learn and accept that the stems of these nouns are tempor- and lepor- without further questions asked.
This is what I would suggest as a starting point for anyone.
While mostly ...
Th neuter adjective clarius is of the third declension, just like words such as praeceps (gen. praecipitis) and vetus (gen. veteris). As you can see, the genitive is often quite different from the nominative in words of the third declension. You can't really predict the genitive form based on the nominative form unless you know quite a bit more than just the ...
The following extract from the Oxford English Dictionary, art. "plus", is perhaps of interest:
The prepositional use (sense A. 1), from which all the other English
uses developed, did not exist in Latin of any period. It probably
originated in the commercial language of the Middle Ages (see
discussion at minus prep., n., adv., and adj.). The signs + ...
According to Gildersleeve and Lodge, Latin grammar §296, Remark 1.b.2:
The Abl. [of comparison] is very common in negative sentences, and is used exclusively in negative relative sentences.
So, although a noun or pronoun other than a relative pronoun is often used as an ablative of comparison in negative sentences, the relative pronoun is used in this ...
This is a bunch of questions, so I will give only a short answer to each.
If you want more details, please ask a follow-up question with a narrower focus to dig deeper.
What are the superlative and comparative forms of "optimus"?
There are none, as optimus is a superlative already.
It is not unique in that respect; pessimus, maximus, and minimus behave ...
The two basic options that come to mind are:
Ille facilius legit quam scribit.
Illi facilius est legere quam scribere.
The second one corresponds with the typical English phrasing.
The first one is "he reads easily" rather than "it is easy for him to read", but I see no difference in meaning in Latin.
The structural difference is ...
It seems to be difficult to distinguish participles from nouns/adjectives. This is a problem, because it seems clear that some adjectives with the form of participles have comparative forms.
The idea that the use of the comparative form implies that a participle has been converted to an adjective does seem to be out there:
In order to distinguish a noun ...
It is a matter of style. Reginaldus Foster in Ossa Latinitatis Sola mentions this on Page 43 and following.
Contact with Latin literature will convince anyone and everyone of how the Romans loved to deal with and to hear the relative pronoun.
Evidence of this is the tendency to place relative clauses out in front of sentences and phrases:
It's adverbial in both cases. The demonstrative adjective-modifier(?) tam modifies the adverb audaciter, which is the core of the adverbial phrase expressing how you should talk with people; and quam... is another—parallel—adverbial phrase, an adverbial subordinate clause.
Tantundem is an adverb to credis, expressing the extent of your trusting someone, and ...