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Are there exceptions to the Latin stress rules?

Yes, there are exceptions, but fortunately not very many. Allen & Greenough has a short summary at §12.a, which I'll discuss here. The first common exception you'll come across is a word with an ...
cmw's user avatar
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17 votes

Are there exceptions to the Latin stress rules?

Imho the most comprehensive treatment of Latin accent (beautifully defined as "anima vocis" by some Roman grammarians) is Leumann, Hofmann, and Szantyr 1977, Lateinische Grammatik. Band I. Lateinische ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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16 votes
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Present participles of the verb esse

Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Why does "ῤάρος" have a smooth breathing?

I wasn't able to find out why this word, or name, has a smooth breathing. As you may have seen already, LSJ actually has separate entries for "Raros", a name, and "raros", the "embryo" word that TKR'...
Asteroides's user avatar
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Why is it "dare" and not "dāre" when most first conjugation verbs spell like "amāre"?

The story, as often, has to do with Proto-Indo-European laryngeals. Both these verbs had a laryngeal as the last consonant of the root: *deh₃-, *steh₂-. All the forms in Latin are based on the zero ...
TKR's user avatar
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12 votes

Why does "ῤάρος" have a smooth breathing?

To unpack the LSJ entry a little: the word is only found in grammatical works, and these differ as to its meaning: EM is the Etymologicum magnum, a 12th-century Byzantine lexicon/encyclopedia. This ...
TKR's user avatar
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11 votes
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Medieval irregularities in the conjugation of salveo?

This is a different verb: not salveō, salvēre (2nd conjugation), but salvō, salvāre (1st conjugation), a late Latin word meaning 'to save.' salvo , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. salvus, I. to save (late ...
cnread's user avatar
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Plural dative and ablative of Greek neuters ending in -ma

Greek Declension As a first note, I think it would be helpful to understand the morphology of these third-declension neuter nouns in -ma as they appear in Greek: Singular ...
brianpck's user avatar
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10 votes

Are there exceptions to the Latin stress rules?

I'll just add one class to what cmw says in his excellent answer, which is shortened fourth-conjugation first-person singular perfects. Dormiī, audiī, veniī, and the like are all stressed on a short ...
Joel Derfner's user avatar
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Are there many irregular adjectives for the Latin comparison?

Let me mention some things to complement your and TKR's lists. First, the adjectives iuvenis and senex have the irregular comparatives iunior and senior. These comparatives are rarely (if ever) used ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
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Imperatives of derivatives of facere, dicere and ducere

To supplement Tom Cotton's answer— There's one other verb which similarly shortens its imperative: ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, imperative fer, ferte. Compounds always use the shortened/apocopated form (...
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Why is intereo not declined like habeo?

Intereō is a compound, inter-eō; the second part is the famous irregular verb eō, īre, ivī/iī, itus. As such, it conjugates like eō does: inter-eō, inter-īs, inter-it, etc. As for why eō acts like ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Are there any instances of long oblique cases of Iuppiter?

Varro mentions the possibility: De Lingua Latina 9.75.4ff. obliquos non habere ut in hoc Diespiter Diespitri Diespitrem, Maspiter Maspitri Maspitrem. ad haec respondeo et priora habere nominandi ...
cmw's user avatar
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9 votes

Are there many irregular adjectives for the Latin comparison?

Allen and Greenough list three more, but they are rare: nequam, nequior, nequissimus "worthless" frugi, frugalior, frugalissimus "useful" dexter, dexterior, dextimus "on the right, handy"
TKR's user avatar
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8 votes
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What is the imperative of velle?

There is no imperative of velle in Latin. It's possible that it used to be vel, but that would have been especially archaic. From Lewis and Short: old imperative of volo properly, "will, choose, ...
cmw's user avatar
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Active verbs with passive meanings

In linguistic parlance these verbs are usually called “stative”, not “passive”. From a Latin standpoint they differ from passive verbs in that they cannot (apparently) be construed with an agent (...
fdb's user avatar
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Are there any instances of long oblique cases of Iuppiter?

I have searched the entire Loeb Classical Library, Bibliotheca Teubneriana Latina and Keil's Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum. Believe me, this is quite representative. No, such forms are not attested ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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7 votes

Imperatives of derivatives of facere, dicere and ducere

Generally, verbs of mixed 3rd/4th conjugation and their compounds (inf. -ere, 1st. pres. sing. in -io) all follow the same pattern, which includes compounds of facio, but not facio itself — which ...
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Does there exist an passive form of sum, esse, fui?

There are no passive forms of esse, for the reason you state -- it's not a transitive verb. Intransitive verbs cannot be passivized, with the minor exception of "impersonal passive" forms (in the 3sg. ...
TKR's user avatar
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7 votes

Why are Greek nouns in -ον, -ος transliterated in Latin as -um, -us?

I agree with the emphasis on morphology in the comments and in user786's answer. The Greek second-declension terminations -ον, -ος are etymologically and morphologically equivalent to the Latin second-...
Asteroides's user avatar
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Where does the infinitive 'fieri' come from?

I haven't been able to find any solid information on the etymology of the Latin infinitive, which is frustrating. I'm sure it's out there, so this will be only a partial answer (containing a decent ...
Draconis's user avatar
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How do I create an agent noun from velle?

Two existing nouns with somewhat similar meaning are voluntarius and volo, volonis, both of which have meanings that can be glossed as “volunteer”. Nouns formed with the suffixes -arius and -o ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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Are there other perfect imperatives than memento?

The perfect imperative is effectively extinct in Latin. I have never seen it with a perfect meaning, and in fact did not realize that mementō was based on a perfect stem until fdb pointed it out (...
Draconis's user avatar
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Is memento(te) semantically a future imperative?

mementō is formed from the reduplicated perfect stem (IE *me-mn-), not from the present stem (IE *men-). Thus, morphologically it is a perfect imperative, not a future imperative; the latter is always ...
fdb's user avatar
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Imperatives of derivatives of facere, dicere and ducere

I don't have enough reputation to add a comment, but I wanted to point out that at least tābefac is attested, in the Vulgate no less: da illis formidinem et tabefac audaciam virtutis eorum et ...
Alan Thomas's user avatar
6 votes

Imperatives of derivatives of facere, dicere and ducere

As Weiss 2009/2011 mentions, word-final –e is “normally retained” (p. 147; emphasis mine – Alex B.). That being said, there are some few cases when word-final –e was lost (or apocopated). In your ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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6 votes

3rd Principal Part of *refero*

As @cnread's comment indicates, the geminate t of rettuli is thought to be a remnant of Indo-European perfect reduplication. The Proto-Indo-European perfect tense was formed with reduplication of the ...
TKR's user avatar
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6 votes

Present participles of the verb esse

In medieval Latin there were neologisms such as ens. The link also says that the original form was sons with the classical meaning "guilty".
Vladimir F Героям слава's user avatar
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Parallel examples of the change of Apothēca to boutique?

Nyrop, Grammaire historique de la langue française (1914, p. 256) gives the following additional examples (among others) for French: Apulia > Pouille, Aquitania > Guyenne hemicrania > ...
TKR's user avatar
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