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Why is the passive participle in Matthew 10:1 rendered as active in English?

The translation is indeed syntactically inexact, but in a very common and justifiable way. The point is that Latin -- unlike e.g. Greek, from which this text is translated -- lacks a perfect active ...
TKR's user avatar
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16 votes
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Present participles of the verb esse

Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In ...
Draconis's user avatar
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14 votes
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What is "old" in the age of a wine?

I have found three ways of referring to the age of wine, the first of which is the most common and simplest: An adjective such as anniculus, bimus etc. quadrimum Sabina, o Thaliarche, merum diota ...
Penelope's user avatar
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14 votes
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How To Say "-able" in Latin

As brianpck mentioned, the English suffix "-able" is borrowed from Latin. The rules for applying it in Latin are more transparent than the English alteration between "-able" and "-ible". EDIT: And are ...
Draconis's user avatar
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12 votes

Why is nominative instead of ablative absolute used in 'Ibi egressi Trojani'?

Egressi Trojani is in the nominative because it's the subject of agerent. The structure of the sentence is a bit unusual, but it's clearer when you move the cum to its vanilla position before the ...
Cairnarvon's user avatar
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11 votes
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When do I use the gerundive vs. participle forms of a verb in Latin?

I think that your question will become a lot clearer when you realize that the gerundive is a participle: specifically, it is the future passive participle. This is thus not a question of choosing ...
brianpck's user avatar
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11 votes
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Is fessus a participle?

Maybe. There is a verb fatīscō, fatīscere, —, ???, meaning to fall apart or collapse. (Sometimes it also acts like a deponent verb, fatīscor, fatīscī, with the same meaning.) But it's practically ...
Draconis's user avatar
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11 votes

How to translate the phrase "perfacile factu esse"?

Your translation "he proved to them that completing these efforts was done very easily" is good. To express such things in Latin the supine is a good choice. The supine ablative (like factu) is an ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
10 votes

Can esse be used with a present participle?

My first instinct was that this is, at the very least, not common in classical Latin, and should only happen with participles that are basically adjectives and have lost some of their verbal semantics,...
blagae's user avatar
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10 votes
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Is the perfect participle in deponent verbs active or passive in meaning?

190b. The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs otherwise deponent it is often passive: as, mercátus, bought; adeptus, gained (or having gained). As I read it (with the help ...
Dario's user avatar
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10 votes

Which grammatical format is the double-perfect system as found in the Vulgate?

This is found even in classical Latin. The perfect passive can be formed by using either the present tense of esse or, when one wants to stress the completedness of the action, the perfect tense. ...
cnread's user avatar
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What would this pun mean?

δοῦσα is a feminine nom. sg. participle, but it's more likely to be taken as the aorist participle of δίδωμι 'give' than the present participle of δέω 'bind': generally, monosyllabic stems (like δε-) ...
TKR's user avatar
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Inveniturne participium futuri activi in ablativo absoluto?

Interesting post! See the following remark included in a related question: "as pointed out by Lavency (1985: 196) in his excellent descriptive grammar of Latin (VSVS. Grammaire latine. ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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9 votes
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How to translate the phrase "perfacile factu esse"?

Perfacile factu means "easy to do." Factu is a supine, and this construction—supines coming off of certain adjectives—is pretty much where you will always see its ablative form. Other common ...
cmw's user avatar
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How productive was the participle in -menus in Latin?

Weiss cites, besides alumnus, femina (from a root meaning 'give suck'), calumnia (derived from *kalwo-mno-, from the root of calvor 'deceive'), and possibly also columna and the divine name Vortumnus (...
TKR's user avatar
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9 votes
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Do vocative forms of participles exist?

In Martial 8,75 it says Hic mihi de multis unus, Lucane, videtur, Cui merito dici 'mortue Galle' potest. “Mortue Galle” was (or so commentators claim) a term from gladiatorial fights; the Murmillo ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
9 votes

What is the correct vowel quantity for the participle of legō?

It's long. The two consonants after the vowel mean that poetic meter can't tell us anything about the vowel length. However, ē and ĕ had different descendants in Romance: ē became Proto-Romance e, ...
Draconis's user avatar
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9 votes

Why sōns but absēns?

Ruppel 2013 seems to offer the kind of explanation that I was thinking of, that absens and praesens were simply adapted to make their endings fit better with the usual morphology of Latin third-...
Asteroides's user avatar
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9 votes
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Meaning of a present participle in a verse of Vergil's Eclogue 8

It is a typical feature of Latin that participles are used instead of finite verbs, even where we would not expect that in our own languages, or it would sound stilted. This is frequently encountered ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
8 votes

What is "old" in the age of a wine?

There is a direct quote for this situation in the Satyricon, where Petronius just uses annus in the genitive plural: Statim allatae sunt amphorae vitreae diligenter gypsatae, quarum in cervicibus ...
blagae's user avatar
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8 votes
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Difference between future participle and simple future

In A Grammar of the Latin Language, Karl Gottlob Zumpt says, But by the combination of the participle future active with the tenses of esse a really new conjugation is formed denoting an intention to ...
Expedito Bipes's user avatar
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Dictionaries always list the Neuter Participle in principal forms, why?

The ultimate answer to these sorts of things is always "convention." They do it because the what they worked with did it. Maybe some editor or another justified their particular adoption of ...
cmw's user avatar
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8 votes
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What is the syntax of ‘quamquam omnis secrētī capācissima’?

Omnis secreti is genitive with capax, which means 'most capable of holding' (OLD definition 2). Although capax is generally used in this sense to describe objects, it's being used to describe a person ...
cnread's user avatar
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8 votes
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How to translate this active participle?

No, an active participle can't be translated with a passive meaning. (The opposite, a passive participle translated with an active meaning, is possible, but only if the verb is deponent.) So only your ...
TKR's user avatar
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7 votes

What is the history of the perfect active participle in Latin?

Wiktionary seems to be wrong. De Vaan derives clīvus and gnāvus from forms with the PIE suffix *-wo-, which is not the same as the pf. ppl. suffix *-wos-; he derives alvus by metathesis from an ...
TKR's user avatar
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7 votes
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Is "ambulabat" a present participle in the imperfect?

Unless there's some bizarre, ultra-special construction going on here, ambulabat can never be a present participle -- it is the 3rd person singular, imperfect active form of ambulare, and can be ...
Nick's user avatar
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7 votes

How did the Latin past participle suffix -atus develop into modern French -é?

There is a regular sound change by which Latin a (long or short), when stressed and in an open syllable, became [e] or [ε]. A few examples out of many: mare > mer amāre > aimer nāsum > nez The past ...
TKR's user avatar
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7 votes
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Is there such a thing as the accusativus cum participio (a.c.p)? If not, what is this? (Greek)

Ephesians 1:16: οὐ παύομαι εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν μνείαν (ὑμῶν) ποιούμενος ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου. (The second ὑμῶν is missing in the best Mss.) The Vulgata has: non cesso gratias agens pro vobis, ...
fdb's user avatar
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7 votes
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Do other verbs use different stems for their perfect passive and future active participles?

There seem to be a fair number of possible exceptions, so the rule that you learned about the formation of future active participles (-ūrus participles) doesn't seem to be any kind of absolute rule, ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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7 votes
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Present Participles: can "respicienti" be part of an ablative absolute in this sentence?

As Sumelic says, both -i and -e can be used as the ablative ending of a participle. Even so, mixing them in the same sentence would probably be unusual. Respicienti is really a dative here; the new a....
Cerberus's user avatar
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