21

The ablative absolute does not require a participle. It can be a noun and an adjective, as you say, or two nouns (Caesare duce urbem cepimus), or even an adjective and an accusative with infinitive (most probably, see the end of this post). However, there is a "verb-like" aspect to the construction that makes you want to add "being" if ...


18

The translation is indeed syntactically inexact, but in a very common and justifiable way. The point is that Latin -- unlike e.g. Greek, from which this text is translated -- lacks a perfect active participle. This means that there's no direct way of saying "Having called his disciples together...". (The exception to this is using a deponent verb, since ...


14

I have found three ways of referring to the age of wine, the first of which is the most common and simplest: An adjective such as anniculus, bimus etc. quadrimum Sabina, o Thaliarche, merum diota fetch the four-year old wine from the Sabine jar, o Thaliarchus Horace, Odes, 1.9 ponite turaque bimi cum patera meri set down incense and a bowl with two-year ...


13

As brianpck mentioned, the English suffix "-able" is borrowed from Latin. The rules for applying it in Latin are more transparent than the English alteration between "-able" and "-ible". EDIT: And are actually even easier, now that I think about it. First, choose your stem. If the verb has a fourth principal part (supine) ending in -tus, remove the -tus ...


13

Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In Latin, these forms evolved into est and sōns, respectively (vowels get lengthened before -ns). The latter is where we get forms like absēns > "absent" and ...


12

Egressi Trojani is in the nominative because it's the subject of agerent. The structure of the sentence is a bit unusual, but it's clearer when you move the cum to its vanilla position before the egressi Trojani, since the whole thing is a subordinate cum causalis: Ibi, [cum egressi Trojani, quibus ab immenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et naves ...


11

Maybe. There is a verb fatīscō, fatīscere, —, ???, meaning to fall apart or collapse. (Sometimes it also acts like a deponent verb, fatīscor, fatīscī, with the same meaning.) But it's practically nonexistent in the past tense, and doesn't have a proper perfect system. Fessus could be considered a perfect participle for fatīscō, with the inchoative -isc- ...


11

Your translation "he proved to them that completing these efforts was done very easily" is good. To express such things in Latin the supine is a good choice. The supine ablative (like factu) is an ablative of respect. For example: Hoc responsum facile est scriptu. = This answer is easy with respect to writing. = This answer is easy to write. If ...


10

My first instinct was that this is, at the very least, not common in classical Latin, and should only happen with participles that are basically adjectives and have lost some of their verbal semantics, like sapiens or patiens. The reason I think that, is that a present participle is perfectly capable of standing on its own in Latin, it doesn't need an actual ...


10

This is found even in classical Latin. The perfect passive can be formed by using either the present tense of esse or, when one wants to stress the completedness of the action, the perfect tense. Likewise, the pluperfect can use either the imperfect or pluperfect of esse, and the future perfect can use either the future or future perfect. Here's a reference ...


10

δοῦσα is a feminine nom. sg. participle, but it's more likely to be taken as the aorist participle of δίδωμι 'give' than the present participle of δέω 'bind': generally, monosyllabic stems (like δε-) don't contract. That said, there are exceptions, and it looks like δοῦσα is actually attested as an alternate of the regular form δέουσα. μή negates a ...


10

Interesting post! See the following remark included in a related question: "as pointed out by Lavency (1985: 196) in his excellent descriptive grammar of Latin (VSVS. Grammaire latine. Description du latin classique en vue de la lecture des auteurs. Paris: Duculot), future active participles are also found as predicates of Ablative Absolutes, as in the ...


9

I see now that some people call this a "future passive participle", but it is conventionally called a gerundive. So I wouldn't think of "going to be read" at all if I were to translate it. A sense of prediction or obligation is inherent in any gerundive. The most literal translation is as follows—by most literal I mean the one that works ...


9

Perfacile factu means "easy to do." Factu is a supine, and this construction—supines coming off of certain adjectives—is pretty much where you will always see its ablative form. Other common examples are: Mirabile dictu, "Amazing to say"; Difficilis latu, "Difficult to bear"; Optimum factu, "Best [thing] to do; Nefas dictu,...


9

I think that your question will become a lot clearer when you realize that the gerundive is a participle: specifically, it is the future passive participle. This is thus not a question of choosing between a gerundive and a participle, but rather choosing which participle (tense and voice) to use. Here is a brief overview of the kinds of participles of ...


9

Weiss cites, besides alumnus, femina (from a root meaning 'give suck'), calumnia (derived from *kalwo-mno-, from the root of calvor 'deceive'), and possibly also columna and the divine name Vortumnus (if related to verto 'turn', though it may rather be Etruscan). These are not Greek loans but native formations; I don't know when precisely they were formed, ...


9

190b. The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs otherwise deponent it is often passive: as, mercátus, bought; adeptus, gained (or having gained). As I read it (with the help of some other paper grammars) this means: “Perfect participles of deponent verbs generally have an active sense. However, there are deponent verbs which follow ...


9

In Martial 8,75 it says Hic mihi de multis unus, Lucane, videtur, Cui merito dici 'mortue Galle' potest. “Mortue Galle” was (or so commentators claim) a term from gladiatorial fights; the Murmillo in Gallic armour was customarily greeted so. I also found several examples for moriture on the Packhum website.


8

There is a direct quote for this situation in the Satyricon, where Petronius just uses annus in the genitive plural: Statim allatae sunt amphorae vitreae diligenter gypsatae, quarum in cervicibus pittacia erant affixa cum hoc titulo: FALERNVM OPIMIANVM ANNORVM CENTVM. Dum titulos perlegimus, complosit Trimalchio manus et: "Eheu, inquit, ergo diutius vivit ...


8

The ultimate answer to these sorts of things is always "convention." They do it because the what they worked with did it. Maybe some editor or another justified their particular adoption of it, but I'm sure that's a rarity. However, in this case, the answer is actually "you just haven't seen them yet." There are dictionaries which use the ...


7

Wiktionary seems to be wrong. De Vaan derives clīvus and gnāvus from forms with the PIE suffix *-wo-, which is not the same as the pf. ppl. suffix *-wos-; he derives alvus by metathesis from an earlier aulos. Weiss lists the first two along with many others under nouns formed with the suffix -uo-. The PIE perfect participle was athematic and had *-wōs in ...


7

There is a regular sound change by which Latin a (long or short), when stressed and in an open syllable, became [e] or [ε]. A few examples out of many: mare > mer amāre > aimer nāsum > nez The past participle suffix is simply another case of this change: -ātum > -é. (It's conventional to cite Latin nouns in the accusative when talking about Romance changes ...


7

Ephesians 1:16: οὐ παύομαι εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν μνείαν (ὑμῶν) ποιούμενος ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου. (The second ὑμῶν is missing in the best Mss.) The Vulgata has: non cesso gratias agens pro vobis, memoriam vestri faciens in orationibus meis. KJV: [I] cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers (continuing the first-person ...


7

As Sumelic says, both -i and -e can be used as the ablative ending of a participle. Even so, mixing them in the same sentence would probably be unusual. Respicienti is really a dative here; the new a.c.i. (discidisse) has a different construction from the previous one (exclamasse with an ablative absolute Caio dante). The new construction is like Chaerea [...


7

The double ss is evidence for a short vowel in ussi (at least at some point) Just a short time after posting this question, I remembered a relevant fact. Even though there wasn't (as far as I know) a regular Latin sound change that would have shortened ū to u in this context, there was a Latin sound change that would have shortened ss to s after a long vowel ...


7

This is a deponent verb. Both the normal contemplare and the deponent contemplari exist and mean roughly the same thing. I have the impression that the deponent one is more common, but the details surely depend on the era and author. The deponent verb has passive forms but active meaning, and therefore the passive perfect participle has active meaning too. ...


7

Summary: the reason why this sentence seems unusual after translation is only because of the limits of English syntax, not because anything odd in the Latin. A short form of expression combining two really distinct indirect questions I do not understand why the commentator read the sentence that way. It is theoretically possible to read the first ...


7

In A Grammar of the Latin Language, Karl Gottlob Zumpt says, But by the combination of the participle future active with the tenses of esse a really new conjugation is formed denoting an intention to do something. This intention may arise either from the person's own will , or from outward circumstances, so that, e. g., scripturus sum may either mean “I ...


7

As Allen & Greenough (§499) points out, one nuance that this participle can express is 'likelihood or 'certaintly.' Sometimes, this certainty is so strong, that it even seems to approach inevitability or 'destiny.' One example that comes immediately to mind is letter 6.16.2 of Pliny, the first of two letters to Tacitus about the eruption of Vesuvius: ...


7

I doubt this is the only possible solution (it may not even be the best), but I think it works reasonably well for your two examples. The passive of videre can be paired with the future active participle to indicate the outcome that's anticipated (even if only by the speaker). This construction is amply attested, being found in Cicero, Livy, Seneca, Tacitus, ...


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