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10

You are correct, this is a passive infinitive: "to be counted". The passive versions of amāre, habēre, currere, and audīre are amārī, habērī, currī, and audīrī.


9

The forms with π are Ionic, which is a dialect that drops word-initial aspiration. It does not normally turn φ into π, but in this case the φ is a result of the π of the preposition ἀπό interacting with the initial aspiration of ἵημι. The normal active present indicative third person singular in Attic is ἀφίησι(ν) or ἀφιεῖ.


7

It is a matter of counting, but I would consider it more natural to say that there are 3 instead of 6 persons. The point of the three-person view is that there is the additional property of "number". There are two numbers in Latin: singular and plural. (The dual number between the two has almost entirely vanished from Latin and it should be ...


6

The word aliquem can be used both as a substantive as well as an adjective, so in the expression "Abdicare cibum aliqem", it should be taken as an adjective: To reject some food. Therefore, the only formula present in this example is a verb form (in this case, the infinitve abdicare) and a direct object (cibum aliqem). There is no double ...


5

In addition to the other answers, on specific conditions, one can also express an indefinite person using the present subjunctive(*) of the 2nd person singular. In a manner not not unsimilar to "Generic you" in English and other languages. According to A&G (§518) in general conditions : The subjunctive is often used in the 2nd person singular, ...


5

Let me try to approach this from a slightly different angle: What would work as a citation form? A good citation form would be such that you could deduce all other forms (from the present stem) from it. I will look into the six personal forms of present active indicative and the present active infinitive. The exercise can be extended to other forms, but ...


5

For practical reasons, I imagine the index form is often (but not always) given in the first-person since it comes first in the principal parts and is usually the first in a paradigm memorized. There is however ancient precedence. In discussing Latin verbs, Varro chiefly (but again not always) gives the first person unless he was specifically discussing ...


4

This isn't a full answer, but brianpck provides some interesting evidence for how the Romans thought of verbs, in his answer to a related question. From Varro's De Lingua Latina VI.5.37: Primigenia dicuntur verba ut lego, scribo, sto, sedeo et cetera, quae non sunt ab ali<o> quo verbo, sed suas habent radices. Contra verba declinata sunt, quae ab ali&...


4

I do not know a Latin–English dictionary that gives simple, accessible, clearly structured usage notes for verbs and simple, stripped-down examples. If such a dictionary exists, I would expect it to be found in the educational market, catering to students of Latin in secondary school. I know this is an English language website, and non-English dictionaries ...


4

Another common example that comes to mind is vapulo, -are, which means "to be beaten." In at least one case cited in L&S from Quintilian's Institutio Oratoria, vapulo can even be paired with an ablative of agent: . . . testis in reum, rogatus an ab reo fustibus uapulasset, 'innocens', inquit. . . .


4

These are the textbook examples: Fio (and its compounds) functions as the passive of facio (and its compounds). It even can take an agent. But it has some passive forms (fieri, factus sum). Veneo functions as the passive of vendo.


3

@brianpck is right, but it's worth adding that in the example quoted, "Sentio, iudices, moderandum mihi esse iam orationi meae fugiendamque vestram satietatem", Cicero had no choice about making "moderandum" impersonal: it has to be impersonal because, in this sense, "moderari" does not take an accusative direct object but ...


3

The verb veniunt doesn't work as directly with the gerundive (future passive participle) as you think. Omnia consideranda is "everything that must be considered", so it should be more along the lines of: [These] come before everything that must be considered. You can argue that the meaning is practically the same, but I think there is a meaningful ...


3

Here is a couple of examples from Plautus that could be relevant for your question: a. Personal use of a transitive verb like decet: contempla ut haec (vestis) me deceat (Pl. Most. 172). 'See how this dress suits me.' b. Impersonal use of a transitive verb like decet: ita ut vos decet (Pl. Most. 729). 'so as befits you'. The following example could also ...


3

Person vs. number When we speak, there are three kinds of roles being played: someone speaking, someone being spoken to, and someone or something else being spoken of. For example, "I (first person) told you (second person) that Chris (third person) went to the store." Grammatical person is the generic term for those roles. The first person is the ...


3

Your translation is actually almost perfect. The only small issue is that autem "however" never stands first in its clause; it would be better replaced with sed or at, both of which mean "but". The reason there are two infinitives in a row is that one way of expressing a negative command is noli plus infinitive, and in this case that ...


3

Also in PLINY, Letters X.34 ~line 5, ...contractī fuerint..."they will have been brought together". I don't know how to translate this. I have seen these alternative passive forms too and no one explains them. Maybe like above, the participle is taken as an adjective.


2

Indeed, "send to" and "allow to enter" are not universally equivalent. But there are situations where they mean the same, and such weaker similarity seems to be enough when words change meaning over time. Consider, for example, some kind of a guard (or a bouncer or a doorman or some such person) at a door, controlling who gets in. When ...


2

I would say fugio is a better choice than evado.


2

I would recommend taking a look at Fax nova linguae latinae as I find it to meet the demand of simplicity and verb usage. Personally, I would have liked to discover this source earlier on my studies. On celo, for example, it readily presents the different ways of usage: Celare aliquem aliquid & de aliqua re, alicui aliquid. So we can see the double ...


2

As pointed out by Joonas, it is VERY important to give the relevant/full quotes (at least, in these cases). Otherwise, the poster can receive contradictory feedback. For example, Joonas answered as Cicero would probably did. Indeed, in Classical Latin the only interpretation/analysis of the first example is the one given by Joonas. However, it is the case ...


2

Cassell's Latin Dictionary has: enable = dat. of person + gen. of thing + facultatem facere facilitate = acc. of thing + faciliorem reddere The Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources (DMLBS) has "facilitare, to render easier, help." ( https://logeion.uchicago.edu/facilitare - attested AD 1412, plus a number of possibly earlier ...


2

Possible examples: carcero, carcerare. Lewis and Short has an entry defining it as follows: to imprison, incarcerate (post-class.), Salv. Prov. 2, p. 53; Auct. Prog. Aug. 29. Pretty clearly based on the location noun carcer, and the entry seems to clearly define it as a location verb. I haven't examined the citations. corono, coronare. Lewis and Short ...


2

As others have said, the infinitive wasn't generally used to indicate purpose in Classical Latin. But this does happen fairly regularly in later times. For a famous example, in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, Peter is fleeing persecution in the city when he runs into Jesus. He asks, Domine, quo vadis? ("Lord, where are you going?") and Jesus responds ...


1

To add to the other answers. Quo can replace ut to introduce a relative clause of purpose. Compared to the other alternatives, this option seems to be scarcer; it is used primarily (but not exclusively) when the clause contains a comparative: legem brevem esse oportet quo facilius ab imperitis teneatur. (The law should be short to be more comprehensible to ...


1

It looks like the verb you are looking for is very close semantically to allow/permit. Interestingly, you use allow in your question: "What I am after is a verb like "enable" or "facilitate" that would allow me to convey the idea concisely and flexibly". If indeed you can use "enable" instead "allow" in that ...


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