It is called a catchword and is common in manuscripts and in early printed books. Usually it appears only on the verso (even-numbered pages) and it allows the bookbinders to make sure that nothing is missing and that the pages are in the right order. Sometimes a catchword will appear (as here) also on the recto (odd-numbered page), for purely aesthetic ...
I would recommend Noto, which attempts to represent all of Unicode in a consistent style. It's available for free in both sans and serif versions.
I'm generally pretty happy with it; you can see in this image that the i with macron and underdot in prīmus is slightly misaligned, but I'm not sure if that's a font issue or an editor issue. (In this example I ...
I would say that is a common abbreviation for "-que". Maybe you could find useful Cappelli's Dizionario di Abbreviature latine (a very detailed repertory of latin abbreviations). Take a look here.
Here is the phrase with the soluted words:
silensq(ue) sisto tuumq(ue)
I would add that this is not a ligature but an abbreviation, while -st- of the word ...
This 'typesetting leader' was widely in use from early printing times but was not universal, as your examples indicate. In English, it occurs, for example, in Gibbon's History of the Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire and, as @Alex B comments on your question, it certainly carried on, in English at least, well into the nineteenth century.
As @fdb says, ...
The following is from the 'Variant forms' section of From Unicode to Typography, a Case Study: the Greek Script, by Yannis Haralambous (p 7–9). The paper was presented at the 14th International Unicode Conference (Boston, 1999). In the following instances, different letterforms have, at some times and in some places, been used, depending on the letter's ...
Beta comes to mind. From wikipedia
In some high-quality typesetting, especially in the French tradition, a typographic variant of the lowercase letter without a descender is used within a word for ancient Greek: βίβλος is printed βίϐλος,
As I hope you can see in the above quote, there is even a special Unicode point for it, incorrectly named GREEK BETA ...
It must be que.
The conjunction -que is very common in Latin, and it is no surprise it has it's own symbol.
For example suumque is (almost) the same as et suum and means "and his own".
The excerpt you have is a fragment, and the exact translation depends on more context.
This page has some helpful info.
On an English keyboard, the accent found on the semicolon renders a tonos (modern); the accent found on the Q renders an oxia (ancient).
Basically, these two accents -- tonos and oxia -- exist in Unicode for historical reasons, but there is (or ought to be) no actual difference between them in meaning or usage; the oxia is ...
Another free option is DejaVu, from an older project with the same aim as Noto (i.e. trying to cover as much of Unicode as possible). I don't like its look quite as much, but it was my go-to for obscure symbols or mixtures of different scripts back before Noto.
The kerning seems a bit weird here, and a couple of the diacritics are placed strangely, but it ...
The third page and section of the documentation you linked to says:
Therefore this guess is correct:
The semicolon-key accent (the stubby one) belongs to modern Greek, whilst the Q-key accent (the one with a regular slant) belongs to Ancient Greek.
It says Vn~, so vn with a general mark of abbreviation. This mark normally stands for -de if it is written above an -n at the end of a word (provided that -de fits), so it must be unde here, "whence".
I've found an 18th-century print edition of the Sententiae of Petrus Lombardus that has a similar use of unde with partly the same text, and ...
I've even seen this in old books written in other languages as well (including Dutch, English and French). It's a thing they used to do, but usually stopped doing many years ago (it would be great if someone knew around what time this was, I suppose it has something to do with the (semi-)automation of printing).
The reason you see it more in Latin books is ...
There is also Charis SIL, though I haven't checked against all your requisites:
Charis also makes other fonts, like Andika (see same link above):
Charis says this about those fonts: "This font software is free to use, modify and redistribute according to the terms of the SIL Open Font License."
added for completeness
Epsilon also has two lowercase forms: ε and ϵ (also called lunate, just like the rounded sigma, or uncial.) The distinction seems to be mainly one of periods, not position. Uncial form was apparently predominant between IV and VIII centuries AD.
Interestingly enough, in medieval times, many letters developed not ...
For me this is the Unicode Private Use Area character U+E8BF LATIN SMALL LETTER Q LIGATED WITH FINAL ET defined by a Medieval Unicode Font Initiative recommendation, however the diacritical mark over the character is a mystery for me.
Recently the needed glyph has became available in the JuniusX font as a stylistic variant of U+0111 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH STROKE (cv06). As the text in question does not contain U+0111 in its primary shape, the problem can be considered solved: the text can be encoded as plain text without the need to use some markup.
Here is a partial answer.
I don't know what kind of forms you can find in historical (e.g. medieval) documents.
In normal current typographic practice, no
In Latin texts that have been published in the present day by academic sources, you're unlikely to find ligatures of any kind. It's currently preferred to write "oe" (or "ae") as a ...
I think your question has both Latin and typographical elements to it.
You are correct in that Greek the letter sigma has two variants: ς, used only at the ends of words, and σ, used elsewhere which was then reflected in Latin cursive.
In Old Latin cursive "the letter s was written as a vertical downstroke with a small curve at the end of it, and a ...