14

The word is reservaculum, "something used to keep things in", from reservo "keep (back)". I believe this word is used to describe the pouch of marsupials in similar texts from that period. Praesumably, this was before the word marsupial was invented, which is derived from Latin marsupium, "pouch". Incidentally, you have uon where it should be non. A plain ...


10

The consistency of Greek spelling tends to hide the sound changes that happened within the language. Greek originally(*) had three different "o-like" sounds, written ο, ω, ου. Since they had only two "o-like" letters, they needed to use two letters together for the third one. The same thing happened with their three "e-like" sounds, ε, η, ει. It's thought ...


9

Note that the letter Z has been associated with affricate sounds like [ts] for a very long time. Ancient use of "Z" for affricate sounds Zeta in Classical Attic Greek is thought to have represented [zd], but there is some evidence for [dz] as another pronunciation that existed in different dialects or stages of Greek. On this site, Alex B's answer ...


8

I can answer the second part, at least. That's a tilde ĩ, not a macron ī, and it's one of the most common scribal abbreviations, representing a following N or M. So anĩal, tẽpore, oblatũ = animal, tempore, oblatum. This is where the modern tilde used in Spanish and Portuguese comes from: Latin annum > anno > Spanish año "year". It originated as a small "N" ...


7

Archaic and Classical Latin First of all, the letter Z has never been common in Archaic and Classical Latin, for a number of reasons, primarily because there was no such phoneme (see more on rhotacism in Latin). The earliest example of Z we have from Latin inscriptions is dated 81 BC, although it can be found in earlier Latin abecedaria - see my other ...


7

First, a pretty banal orthographic point. In Greek, only initial rho has a breathing mark, and there are only two recorded words (ῤάρος and its diminutive ῤάριον) that use a smooth breathing. Though it's not entirely clear why these words have a smooth breathing, they are obviously anomalies. The above strongly suggests that smooth rho wouldn't have been ...


6

Chinese contains many sounds without Latin equivalents. These include (Pinyin) zh and ng, and the tones. So it comes down to how you'll approximate those. zh is /ʈʂ/, a retroflex affricate. Latin didn't have any affricates at all pronounced in that area of the mouth; while /ks/ and /ps/ were allowed, */ts/ couldn't occur in Classical Latin. So a Roman might ...


5

For a Classical example, threre's this dedicatory inscription from the sanctuary in Olympia, from the second century BCE (perhaps 143 or 142): Δάμων Νικάνδρος Μακεδὼν ἀπὸ Θεσσαλονίκης Κόιντον Καεκέλιον Κοΐντου Μέτελλον, στρατηγὸν ὓπατον Ῥωμαίων, Διὶ Ὀλυμπίῳ, ἀρετῆς ἕνεκεν καὶ εὐνοίας ἧς ἔχων διατε- λεῖ εἴς τε αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν πατρίδα καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς Μακεδόνας ...


5

As far as I know, Μωρίᾱς Ἐγκώμιον is correct. This would be standard Attic Greek for "Encomium [praise-ode] of Folly". Neither Greek nor Latin had a letter for the sound [ŋ] (which English writes with "ng" as in "sing"). This sound is a velar nasal, so the closest equivalents are the velar stop /g/ and the alveolar nasal /n/. In ...


5

Note: this answer is pure speculation (or original research, if you're feeling generous), not backed up by any scholarly references. Neither Varro nor I marked vowel length in our Hebrew and Aramaic transcriptions. But what if we go back and add that? מְשִׁיחַ‎ məšīaħ → messias יֵשׁוּעַ jēšūaʕ → iēsūs אַבְשָׁלוֹם 'abəšālōm → abessalōm הוֹשֵׁעַ hōšēaʕ → ...


5

There are not many Latin-text sources for Phoenician-proper, only for its descendant/close relative Punic, the language of Carthage which was settled by Phoenician colonists from Tyre Luckily there is a reasonable body of Latin-text Punic including several inscriptions from Tunisia and Libya, as well as some lines of dialogue in Plautus' play Poenulus ("the ...


4

The Italian Wikipedia page on Roman onomastics states, without references though, Former auxiliary soldiers and other categories of people that earned the Roman citizenship, could and often would keep at least a part of their original name. A good many names (cognomina when assuming the tria nomina, but old personal slave names) were of Greek origins, ...


4

I think you answered this question yourself with the humble word "also" in the second sentence. "Nomen" has two meanings in Latin, "name" and a particular part of a Roman tripartite name. Even barbarians have names and there is no other word for this than "nomen".


4

In Byzantine and Modern Greek τζ is used for /dʒ/ and τσ for /tʃ/ in foreign words, in MG especially in loans from Turkish, e.g. τζαμί < T. cami /dʒami/ “mosque”, and τσάι for çay /tʃaj/ “tea”. This does not really have anything to do with Latin.


4

Actually zhong wen isn't the closest in English. Though that is the official transliteration, Pinyin wasn't created solely from English pronunciation. In English, it would be *jong wen." Unfortunately, Classical Latin does not have the zh (ch in Wade-Giles, the j I listed above) sound, nor the ʃ (sh) sound, so any attempts would be an approximate. Without ...


4

It says Vn~, so vn with a general mark of abbreviation. This mark normally stands for -de if it is written above an -n at the end of a word (provided that -de fits), so it must be unde here, "whence". I've found an 18th-century print edition of the Sententiae of Petrus Lombardus that has a similar use of unde with partly the same text, and ...


4

I'm sure there is some system - or, rather, convention - of transliterating Russian names into Latin. I will do more research over the weekend. Examples of famous Russian classical scholars with their names in Russian and their Latin transliteration (used by those scholars themselves since they wrote in Latin too). Я́ков Ма́ркович Боро́вский (1896—1994) ...


3

Looking back at this, it seems like a simpler answer might be more appropriate, but my other one's been seen enough I don't want to completely gut it. Basically, every sound in "Iēsūs" exists in both Greek and Latin. But neither Koine (Biblical) Greek nor Latin had enough letters to represent all of their vowel sounds. Both languages had twelve individual ...


3

I think C. M. Weimer's answer above is on the right track, but Draconis is right about the -ong, so I would consider ZVNGVEN the closest that can be expressed in Latin. Of course, this is based on the modern pronunciation. The transcription of the corresponding Old Chinese words are given as *trjuwngH *mjun by Baxter & Sagart in "Old Chinese - a New ...


3

We discussed this question in the “History of science” forum: https://hsm.stackexchange.com/questions/5329/why-saytzeff-and-zaitsev-rules-are-named-differently/5342#5342 where I argued that “there is a case for spelling Russian names the way their bearers did themselves when they used Western languages”, so in this case “Saytzeff”. Likewise “Tschaïkowsky”, ...


3

I think that TKR's remark on the occasional spellings with υ may also be relevant to the matter. Note that in Ἰησοῦς with the single σ, the the ש is in the vicinity of a rounded vowel. Also interesting is that while שְלֹמֹה (Shelomo/Solomon) is Σαλωμῶν (or a variant), אַבְשָׁלוֹם (Abshalom/Absalom) is Αβεσσαλωμ, with medial σσ. Also note אֲבִשַׁי (Abishai)...


3

-ico- is a regular suffix forming an adjective from a noun. mĕlicus melodious. mĕlicae sonores, tuneful sounds (Lucretius) More promising is mēles, also mēlis, -is f. also mælis, a badger or pine marten. Source: Lewis&Short: Perseus Tufts The adjective melicus could mean .1. An actual badger kept for hunting wild bees. .2. Any grizzled animal; e....


2

If you wanted to pronounce it like: English scientific or legal Latin, it would be pronounced "jah-HOE-vee" If you wanted to give it an Ecclesiastical or modern-Roman pronunciation, it would be pronounced "yay-Oh-vay", with a silent H. If you wanted to pronounce it according to the Vox Latina textbook, which is popular these days in academic and educational ...


2

It is not a typo. It's just that neither Greek nor English spelling is phonetically perfectly accurate, and they have chosen a different way to represent a sound that has no separate letter. Transliteration should not work letter by letter, but sound by sound. The letter γ is not always pronounced as [g]. Before κ, γ, ξ, and χ (...


2

Luke 2:2 Greek genitive, Latin ablative absolutes. αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου / Κυρείνου (h) 2 haec descriptio prima facta est praeside Syriae Cyrino King James Bible: Purple Letter Edition 1And it came to pass, in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be registered {...


1

To the primary question, "Is there a standard for transliterating Russian words?", I'm pretty sure the answer is no. After all, who would make such a standard? So, the real question is how to reasonably represent Russian words/names in a Latin context, and here I think there can be various answers depending on the criteria selected. Here are some ...


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