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22

I will split this answer in two halves, for two different kinds of date expression. On November 4 The traditional Roman calendar, whose system is still in use in some festive occasions, is based on three special days in each month: Kalendae (first day of the month), Nonae (fifth or seventh), and Idus (13th or 15th). The later options (7 and 15 instead of 5 ...


15

Your first suggestion seems spot on: "ante urbem conditam" is correct and has several classical examples. Cicero provides the most convincing example of this usage: itaque et illos septem, qui a Graecis σοφοί, sapientes a nostris et habebantur et nominabantur, et multis ante saeculis Lycurgum, cuius temporibus Homerus etiam fuisse ante hanc urbem ...


14

I have found three ways of referring to the age of wine, the first of which is the most common and simplest: An adjective such as anniculus, bimus etc. quadrimum Sabina, o Thaliarche, merum diota fetch the four-year old wine from the Sabine jar, o Thaliarchus Horace, Odes, 1.9 ponite turaque bimi cum patera meri set down incense and a bowl with two-year ...


14

In addition to the familiar September–December, there were two more numerically named months before they were renamed in early imperial era: Quintilis and Sextilis. These should definitely go to your slots 5 and 6. In English you could call these Quintile and Sextile. You seem to have slightly misanalyzed the ending. What you add to the end of a ...


13

Lustrum has several meanings, but that which applies here is the period of five years which elapsed from census to census. The phrase is actually lustris ante tribus, or 'three lustra ago'. A good dictionary will give further explanation, if you require it.


13

In classical times the seven-day week was unknown; obviously, there could be no named days of the week to use as reference points. Months at least were of specified lengths, but the actual date was described by a clumsy method which depended on three datum points within the month itself. These points were the Kalends, Nones and Ides, which occurred in that ...


9

I've been thinking of this one and suddenly remebered the use of singulis + period of time in pl. abl. (singulis annis, singulis horis). Singulis quadrienniis is even attested a couple of times: 1, 2, 3. It seems to be valid to mean an average (yet irregular) frequency, as much as a steady one (e.gr., singulis annis may be every 13th of May, or at whatever ...


9

To supplement Joonas's wonderful answer, the words for "eleven" and "twelve" in Latin are undecim and duodecim, with an i. So I would suggest those months be changed to Undecimber and Duodecimber.


8

There is a direct quote for this situation in the Satyricon, where Petronius just uses annus in the genitive plural: Statim allatae sunt amphorae vitreae diligenter gypsatae, quarum in cervicibus pittacia erant affixa cum hoc titulo: FALERNVM OPIMIANVM ANNORVM CENTVM. Dum titulos perlegimus, complosit Trimalchio manus et: "Eheu, inquit, ergo diutius vivit ...


7

'For how long' can be rendered quamdiu (or quam diu). In this case, because an ongoing state is described, I'd use a present tense verb. For the answer, the accusative of duration does indeed exist in Latin and will work just fine here: quam diu canis es? quartum quintumve* iam annum canis sum. * According to Gildersleeve and Lodge (§336), 'In giving ...


7

The question posted is analogous to the other one: how do you distinguish the sixth hour of the morning with the sixth hour of the afternoon? In English, two expressions in Latin are used: ante meridiem and post meridiem. So I don't see any difficulty in using the second form. If it's too long, abbreviate it, like we do with AM and PM... Although it might be ...


7

Google conjures up a good number of old books with "stylus (or stilus) vetus" and "stylus (stilus) novus".


6

For reference, this is what the OED has to say: Etymology: < Anglo-Norman dat, Anglo-Norman and Middle French date (Middle French datte ; French date ) regnal year (1230 or earlier), date (specified on a document) (1281 in Old French), date (more generally) (1314 or earlier) < post-classical Latin data (6th cent.; frequently from 11th cent. ...


5

In classical mode this is rather complicated, but would be abbreviated to a.d. VI Id. Iun. A.D. MMX, literally short for 'the sixth day before the Ides of June in the Year of the Lord 2010'. In more modern writings this might be more simply expressed VIII. IUN. MMX. Take your pick!


5

As a first note, I have been unable to find a classical work where posthinc is treated as one word. The two Vergil citations in the L&S entry you mentioned actually have post hinc: post hinc digressus iubeo frondentia capris arbuta sufficere et fluuios praebere recentis, (V. G 3:300-301) and post hinc ad nauis graditur sociosque reuisit. (V. A 8:...


5

It just occurred to me that I could express "every fourth year" as semel quoque quadriennio, literally "once in every period of four years". I think that avoids the ambiguity, but it is not very flexible (I don't want to use that construction to say "every 17th second") and might not be as idiomatic as quarto/quinto quoque anno. Additionally, it only says ...


5

I like exacte, though I worry that its similarity to "exactly" might be leading me to think it's closer to what you need than it actually is. It occurs to me that adamussim ("to the level") might also work for the first, but it's not a word I've seen many times in my reading so it could be less appropriate than I suspect. Your second sentence implies to me ...


4

I suggest that you take a look at this old question about similar structures. The conclusion was that present tense is the way to go. Latin has an adverb diu, meaning roughly "for a long time". I would ask "how long?" as quam diu? instead of using the word tempus. If you do use tempus, remember that it's a neuter (not quantus tempus). Lengths of time are ...


4

The best indication is Ovid's Fasti, I, 63 et seqq.: Ecce tibi faustum, Germanice, nuntiat annum / Inque meo primus carmine Ianus adest. / Iane biceps, anni tacite labentis origo, / solus de superis qui tua terga vides / . . . The festival itself was Kalendae Ianuariae, the very day which we call New Year's Day. Earlier, at Fasti I.39, Ovid explains that ...


4

First point, the meaning of the Latin dates was never forgotten but traded continously (e.g. by the Roman Catholic church) into our times. A second point is that we are able to verify some dates referring to astronomical events (e.g., solar eclipses) independently. Using such methods helped in falsifying the Phantom time hypothesis (aka Erfundenes ...


4

One of the best primary sources for sundials is from Vitruvius, "On Architecture", book 9. He describes mathematically how to construct a sundial based on the works of the earlier Greek philosophers. One hōra (hour) was always 1/12 of the time from sunrise to sunset, regardless of how long the day was. This made timekeeping without a sundial significantly ...


4

Adverbs are not normally modified by adjectives. And 'noctu,' occurs mostly in Livy, usually on its own, but sometimes modified by the adverb: secretly 'clam.' And occasionally with numquam, fere, saepe, diu. (never, almost, often, for some time.) But the ablative 'nocte,' in an adverbial phrase can have an adjective. The phrase 'sub nocte' in the ...


4

FWIW, the verb consumo, can be used with amounts of time as meaning to spend: horasque multas saepe suavissimo sermone consumeres (Cic. Fam. 11.27.5) Hence a possibility is to say you spent two hours: horas duas consumpsi id faciens


4

Both ex and ab can be used for specific dates. Here are two examples from Cicero's Epistulae ad Atticum; the first uses ex, and the second uses a(b). For the upper limit of the range, ad or usque ad can be used, as shown here; I believe I've also seen in (+ accusative) used. 3.17.1: de Quinto fratre nuntii nobis tristes nec varii venerant ex a. d. iiii. Non....


4

First off, please congratulate your parents on such a marked achievement! Now, I'm not sure if there is something specific to marriage, but I know such a general construction exists. The Romans used a dating system based off of the years since the founding of Rome, so for instance, the year 1 AD would be written: DCCLIV ab urbe condita 754 from the city ...


3

I believe that there's no difference between specifying the ages of people, and those of anything else. The verb I would choose here is conficio: Hoc vinum est XL annos confectum.


3

I'm not sure there's a single word for this specifically, though such a phenomenon would likely fit in the general category of a monstrum, 'An unnatural thing or event regarded as an omen, a portent, prodigy, sign' (Oxford Latin Dictionary). Nevertheless, in a few passages, Seneca the Younger uses the phrase (in) alieno loco/alienis locis, 'in a place where ...


3

Take two! I think to specify "at four o'clock on the dot", you might have to say something like "at the beginning of the fourth hour". Using classic texts as a guide, some options are: initio + gen. (see Apuleius, Metamorphoses, 7.15, "at the beginning of spring"), giving us: initio horae quartae Caesar prefers an ablative absolute using inita. For ...


3

For the sake of completeness, I have seen lots of Ecclesiastical Latin dates written in the form: [die] roman numeral day (from I to XXXI)/[mensis] month in genitive/[anni] roman numeral year. Just to cite two official examples (one recent, one more than 100 years old): Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die XV Maii An. MDCCCXCI, Pontificatus Nostri Decimoquarto ...


3

There seems no reason to doubt that the English 'date' and similar words in other languages derive from the perfect participle of dare. A very plausible origin is as a a relic of litterae datae which was used to indicate the date on which a letter was handed over to a courier. This is also shown in the singular form [epistola] data quoted in the extract ...


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