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Can a subjunctive verb ever be modified by οὐ? (Greek)

A subjunctive is practically never negated with οὐ. The only systematic exception I can find -- and even this is rare -- is in Homer, where the use of the subjunctive is somewhat different from Attic;...
TKR's user avatar
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Why "fiat lux" and not "sit lux"?

Perhaps the following comparison makes this understandable: sit lux ≈ may light exist fiat lux ≈ may light come into existence The English translation "let there be light" is gives a ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
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Change of tense from present to imperfect

It's actually quite common to switch from the historic present to other past tenses. Here are some examples from Pinkster's Oxford Latin Syntax, vol. I, 7.16, with the historic present in bold and ...
brianpck's user avatar
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Why is the imperfect tense used here instead of the present tense?

Sometimes, the imperfect (and perhaps even the perfect) indicative can be used for a subjunctive. It can then express an irrealis, like here: "it would be better that I died than to live without ...
Cerberus's user avatar
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What are the different ways to express present continuous tense in Latin?

You express it with the present tense. The Latin present cano stands for both the English present "I sing" and the present continuous "I am singing". Only context will determine ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
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weird pluperfect subjunctive in Eutropius

This is a quirk of conditions in indirect statement: a perfect subjunctive in the protasis of a future less vivid condition turns to pluperfect subjunctive when in indirect statement. For examples see ...
TKR's user avatar
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Why "fiat lux" and not "sit lux"?

It's just barely possible it's simpler than that. First, note that the Hebrew does use a verb corresponding to sit rather than fiat: וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ wayyomer ĕlohîm: "...
Cairnarvon's user avatar
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tense fluctuation in Latin narrative

The only guidelines I've seen that are related to this issue in any way aren't really about the switch to historic present per se. (Every discussion I've ever seen is in agreement that the historic ...
cnread's user avatar
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Why is "Gavisus sum" translated "now I rejoice" instead of "I rejoiced"?

Cerberus's answer makes sense, but it's important to remember that this letter wasn't originally written in Latin, but Greek. The Greek text, from the SBH edition, reads: Ἐχάρην δὲ ἐν κυρίῳ μεγάλως… ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Expressing English modalities of advice in Latin

One way you can do this is using the verb debeo, debere, debui, debitus, which not only means "to owe," but also "ought/should." It's relatively simple in its construction, so lets go through each ...
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The use of subjunctive in the future

Tenses of the subjunctive The subjunctive is also known as conjunctive — these two words are synonymous in Latin grammar. The subjunctive mood has four tenses: present (faciam), imperfect (...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
6 votes

Can a subjunctive verb ever be modified by οὐ? (Greek)

Pretty much never. LSJ's entry on οὐ mentions οὐ + subjunctive only once: ...with subj[unctive] in fut[ure] sense, only in Ep[ic], “οὐ γάρ τίς με βίῃ γε ἑκὼν ἀέκοντα δίηται” 7.197; “οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίς ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Can a subjunctive verb ever be modified by οὐ? (Greek)

I don't believe it is possible. A quick scan of the article in Liddell Scott Jones gave only this: with subj. in fut. sense, only in Ep., “οὐ γάρ τίς με βίῃ γε ἑκὼν ἀέκοντα δίηται” 7.197; “οὐκ ...
Cerberus's user avatar
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What is the difference between present and perfect conjunctive in hesitation?

Pinkster in the Oxford Latin Syntax (pp. 492ff.) discusses this question, but finds no clear answer. He considers three explanations: (a) there is a difference in meaning, specifically a difference of ...
TKR's user avatar
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Is there an aoristic-perfective distinction in the Latin perfect?

There is, in fact! As you mention, the Latin "perfect tense" is a combination of the present perfective and past aoristic tense-aspect combinations, which remained separate in Greek (the &...
Draconis's user avatar
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Present used as continuing action in the past?

This is a special exception to the normal tense rules. When dum is used with an ongoing action happening in the past, it's normally followed by the present tense, not the imperfect. The imperfect is ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Modalities for fictitious past: could have, should have, and would have

Even if these expressions (“woulda, shoulda, coulda”) look very similar in English, it is probably helpful to look at two things separately: Would have is a true counterfactual, and since the “would ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
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Why is "Gavisus sum" translated "now I rejoice" instead of "I rejoiced"?

With many (semi-)deponent verbs, the perfect participle often has a present meaning*. That is probably why it is translated as present here, especially if it fits the context. Autem is a complex word ...
Cerberus's user avatar
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What is the difference between present and perfect conjunctive in hesitation?

I think you are trying too hard to achieve your objective, by using both a verb in subjunctive mood and a separate (and pleonastic) expression of uncertainty. The key to a good translation here is to ...
Tom Cotton's user avatar
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How did the "injunctive" work?

Both articles are correct: Homeric Greek had injunctive forms that looked different from the "normal" past tenses, but they didn't mean anything different. In late Proto-Indo-European, or at least ...
Draconis's user avatar
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habitabat = dwelt?

This is an idiom peculiar to Latin: habitāre in the imperfect means "dwelt", and in the perfect means "used to dwell (but no longer does)". I've seen it frequently in the imperfect, but almost never ...
Draconis's user avatar
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Use of the perfect to indicate "whenever I do someting"

The perfect tense sometimes has the point of view of the present, describing the effect of a completed past action on the present. There are many possible ways to phrase an English translation: "...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
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Adhibeturne tempus perfectum/imperfectum aut presens cum de homine mortuo loqueris?

As a native English speaker, I would use a past tense to describe something that was once true but no longer is, and the present to describe something that is still true. Barack Obama was the ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes

Saepe eum hic vidi/videbam

To answer to your question directly: Why not vidēbam? Is it optional to use the imperfect here? Or does the perfect tense convey a distinction here, like "I saw him here several times in the past" ...
Rafael's user avatar
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Using two future tenses together

Your specific question allows it, so would you be interested in avoiding the construction with a conjugated verb ? If you are, you might consider a few options, some of which are admittedly arcane and ...
blagae's user avatar
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Using two future tenses together

I will try to add to my answer with a more grammatical explanation if I have time, but for now I can introduce some sample phrases. These examples come from the Lewis & Short entry for donec: ...
brianpck's user avatar
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Livy Book 1 27.1 type of subjunctive, sequence of tenses

Fuerit is the perfect subjunctive of esse, you can look up such forms in a conjugation table like this. Part of learning Latin is guessing what form of what verb you might be looking at, and then ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
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To talk about repetitive past events (that used to occur regularly), do you use perfect or imperfect tense?

Imperfect tense. The reason that it is called imperfect is because it describes a repeated (a.k.a. non-instantaneous) action. Perfect, on the other hand, describes something that happened once. There ...
gingerwitch64's user avatar
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Imperfect subjunctive in exclamation

Allen & Greenough, New Latin grammar, §437, a: The Indicative is sometimes used where the English idiom would suggest the Subjunctive:— longum est, it would be tedious [if, etc.]; satius erat, ...
cnread's user avatar
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2 votes

Imperfect subjunctive in exclamation

In the simplest sense, the subjunctive is used to express hypothetical ideas. So here the wolf is imagining not what is, but what could be. This type of sentence is called a statement of "general ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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