13

According to Miller (2006: 76, 78), the endings -men and -mentum form a deverbal (with one exception) noun with the semantics of means, instrument or result of action of the verb. Relevant quotations are §3.4 -men [...] ‘means, instrument, result’ While -men is formally and functionally related to -mentum (LG i.§326), the latter will be treated ...


13

Unfortunately, it seems that people have tried for centuries to answer this question, with limited success or at least limited consistency. For example: In his 1841 Dictionary of Latin Synonymes, Lewis Ramshorn indicates that fourth-declension words derived from the supine "designate permanent conditions," while third-declention words in -tio and -sio ...


13

The etymological derivation of the noun fōmes, fōmitis from the base of the verb foveo is too difficult for me to answer. So in this post, I'll focus on something else in your post that I think I might be able to clarify: how the different forms of the noun are related to each other in Latin. A fair number of Latin nouns inflect like fōmes, with a nominative ...


12

It is generally believed is that "The Italic "1st declension" continues PIE feminine formations ("ā-stems") built with an invariable suffix *-eh2(-)" (Vine 2017: 755) cf. Beekes 2011 proposal of an ablauting suffix *eh2(-) ~ *-h2(-)). Weiss notes that "Masculine nouns of the first declension that we find in Latin are largely personalizations of ...


10

The suffix -landia is definitely derived from Germanic land. It has no clear cognates outside the Germanic languages and there are some hypotheses that it is a loan from some pre-indogermanic European language and/or that there is a connection to the Basque language. I see no better Latin alternatives for Islandia or Nederlandia, but Finnia is definitely ...


10

There are two distinct words here: The noun vertebra. The adjective vertebralis, "related to vertebra". The adjective is derived from the noun, and both the noun and the adjective have various different forms. This is an important starting point and helps make sense of such Latin terms. Adding the prefix inter- to the adjective turns it into a ...


9

I think abdomunculum would be the most regular diminutive of abdomen. But it seems a bit difficult to me to give a clear answer because the rules about "proper" diminutive suffixes are often based on the form and gender of the original noun, and I know of no existing diminutives formed on nouns with precisely the same morphological form and gender as abdomen,...


9

I believe you and the OED are talking about two different things. As you can see from the very same passage, the genitive is fomitis. This is par for the course for 3rd declension nouns. You find the root from the genitive, not the nominative. In this case, the foot is fomit-, whereupon you add the 3rd declension endings, -is, -i, -em, -e, -es, etc. You see ...


8

They not only had the same meaning in Latin, they were the same suffix. In Latin, the suffix -āli- (the -s at the end is the nominative ending, so not part of the suffix) formed adjectives from nouns. But when there was an l in the stem of the noun it was attached to, the suffix became -āri- by dissimilation: e.g. familia - familiāris. This is why Spanish ...


7

Pronunciation Below you can see the vowel lengths marked by L&S and by OLD. Note that OLD doesn't cover post-Classical vocabulary. (In this table L&S = the online L&S via Perseus; OLD = the 1st edition of the OLD consulted by hand; Gaffiot = the 2016 online edition via Logeion.uchicago.edu.) Vowel in penultimate syllable |---------------------|--...


7

There is a regular sound change by which Latin a (long or short), when stressed and in an open syllable, became [e] or [ε]. A few examples out of many: mare > mer amāre > aimer nāsum > nez The past participle suffix is simply another case of this change: -ātum > -é. (It's conventional to cite Latin nouns in the accusative when talking about Romance changes ...


7

It's for emphasis, and older than the use of ipse as an intensifier. From Allen & Greenough §143.d: Emphatic forms of tu are tute and tutemet (tutimet). The other cases of the personal pronouns, excepting the genitive plural, are made emphatic by adding -met: as, egomet, vosmet. NOTE.—Early emphatic forms are mepte and tepte. Wiktionary has a list ...


7

Yes, feminine forms exist. This is covered in sections 845–848 of Smyth's Greek Grammar. Here are some examples: Βορέας > Βορεάδης, 'son of Boreas'; Βορεάς -δος, 'daughter of Boreas' Θέστιος > Θεστιάδης, 'son of Thestius'; Θεστιάς -δος, 'daughter of Thestius' Φέρης > Φερητιάδης, 'son of Pheres'; Φερητιάς -ιάδος, 'daughter of Pheres' Περσεύς > Περσηιάδης, ...


7

The endings -τρον, -θρον (and actually, a bunch of others also) are thought to share a common origin, but the origin of the τ/θ difference in particular is hypothesized to involve Proto-Indo-European laryngeals, which were lost in Greek, making it likely that there was no simple synchronic explanation by that point. Based on the results of Greek Dictionary ...


6

Allen & Greenough lists -etum/-tum under the heading 'Nouns with Adjective Suffixes' (section 254). It notes that the suffix denotes 'place of a thing, especially with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow.' The examples provided are: quercetum, 'oak grove' olivetum, 'olive grove' salictum, 'a willow thicket' Argiletum, 'The Clay Pit' ...


6

Gary Miller, in Latin Suffixal Derivatives in English and Their Indo-European Ancestry says that there is no direct relation between nouns formed from verbs with -ura and the similar future active participles. Formally, this suffix seems to be an adjectival *-ro- (fem. *-reh2) extension of nominal *-t(e/o)u-.... While -tura bears a close resemblance to ...


6

I assume that you are asking about nouns like motus, -ūs, not the perfect passive participle motus, -ī. The former is one of many masculine abstract deverbal nouns with the suffix –tu-, like cantus “singing”, and similar formations in Greek, Sanskrit etc. These are not from the p.p.p. as such; they merely share the element /t/. From an IE perspective, the ...


6

The adjective κήτειος for kēte(s)-ios, with the usual contraction of ε + ι > ει suggests that we should expect *κητείδιον as well.


6

The variants -gena and -genus This ending has two forms: -gena (inflected as a first-declension masculine/common gender noun, potentially used adjectivally) and -genus, -gena, -genum (inflected like a first/second declension adjective). I believe second declension variants in -genus, -genum etc. are generally rare in ancient times, and become more frequent ...


6

There is in fact a word lupa which is the normal word for a female wolf. (If you use it in your story, however, you might want to be aware that for whatever reason, it's also a common word for "prostitute".) As for lupus, as per the L&S entry, it seems normally to refer to a male wolf, though apparently there were some uses of the phrase lupus ...


6

I think it is the patronymic -ides, which is in the first declension in Latin. The plural forms are regular, so bovidae 'sons of a cow' would be bovides in the singular. It would be a masculine noun. Compare to cometes, gen. cometae, which is cometae, gen. cometarum in the plural. See Allen and Greenough, 1st Declension: Greek Nouns: https://dcc.dickinson....


5

The common ending -bundus, similar meaning, (see Logeion entry for pudibundus, toggling the left-hand column switch to "Inverse") also suggests that De Vaan has it right, the suffix is just -undus.


5

On the model of homō, hominis (stem = homin), the recorded diminutives of which are homullus (< homōnlus) and homunculus, I'd guess abdōmullus or abdōmunculus (update: or maybe abdōmullum or abdōmunculum). The topic of suffixes for various types of words is covered in, e.g., §176 ff. of Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar. Diminutive suffixes are ...


5

If the original question is about English, it's in the wrong stack. However, if you're looking for a Latin form, I'd like to offer another alternative: taking the noun, making it into an adjective with -osus, and then making that superlative. Let's take, for example, take the word populus, "people." To describe a place as being "full of people,...


5

Weiss writes that "The interrogative enclitic particle -ne becomes -n in Plautus when apocope produces an acceptable coda" (p. 147, footnote 79), i.e. *-Vsn- > *-V ̅n- (I.B.8.b, p. 169). He gives the following examples: scivin (Pseud. 977), vin (Curc. 313). He also says that "[v]erbal forms ending in -s often lose the s with compensatory lengthening" ...


5

There are a few Latin verbs ending in -izare, and they are almost all Greek loanwords. (This list was generated by using the search for “words ending with …” on the Perseus server—do note that it contains a few false positives, some of the entries are no verbs at all.) And this is not surprising, as -ῐ́ζω is a common suffix in Greek used for forming verbs ...


5

Quidquid, perhaps? See examples at Wiktionary under quisquis.


4

If words that combine elements from Latin and Greek are allowed, there's the fairly prolific Greek prefix myri(a)-, which literally means '10,000' but is used in a general way for very large numbers, in the sense 'countless'. This would give myriacorn.


4

Buck, Comparative grammar p. 335, writes that Latin -ētum is “originally from verb stems in ē, as in acētum ‘vinegar’ (acēscō ‘turn sour’), but productive in nouns of place, especially place where a plant grows.” de Vann derives acētum from aceō ‘be sour’, not from the inchoative acēscō; in any case the ē is part of the stem. It seems possible to me that ...


4

The adjective Herculeus is well attested in Classical Latin. I think “Herculaeus” is merely a bad spelling in Mediaeval or Humanistic Latin.


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