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Latin minimal pairs, distinguished only by the length of the vowel in an unstressed non-last syllable

The verb nĭteō "shine" is only used in the active, and the verb nītor "strive" only in the passive (it's deponent), so at first glance it seems like there won't be confusion ...
Draconis's user avatar
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12 votes

Why do some Latin adverbs have accent on the last syllable?

This seems to be a mystery. I haven't found any good explanation yet; I don't know if this is because the subject has been neglected so far, or if it's because the very occurrence of the phenomenon is ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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9 votes

Why do some Latin adverbs have accent on the last syllable?

An important note about my sources: A question has been raised by another user re: sources in my answer. Anyone can easily check the accuracy of my statements and sources. Dr. Stotz is an expert in ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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8 votes
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How do we know where the Roman prose stress was?

W. Sidney Allen in Vox Latina says that various grammarians such as Quintilian stated the rules quite unambiguously (although he also writes that "there is some controversy about the nature of the ...
varro's user avatar
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7 votes

How to pronounce "Roterodamus"?

Actually the syllaba paenultima of this word is treated as anceps in Neo-Latin verse – so Neo-Latin authors would have said either Roteródamus or Roterodámus. Here are two examples from the many poems ...
Dan Patterson's user avatar
7 votes
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How to pronounce "Roterodamus"?

A colleague asked me about this a while ago. I agree with that colleague and with you that to native speakers of Dutch it would be absurd (or at least ridiculous) to stress the antepenult. As for ...
Batavulus's user avatar
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7 votes
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Does Greek accent ever affect Latin stress?

Greek stress could be used in the medieval period. Per An Introduction to the Study of Medieval Latin Versification, by Dag Norberg, translated by Grant C. Roti and Jacqueline de La Chappelle Skulby: ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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7 votes
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Etymology and pronunciation of words ending in “-iasis”

Pronunciation Below you can see the vowel lengths marked by L&S and by OLD. Note that OLD doesn't cover post-Classical vocabulary. (In this table L&S = the online L&S via Perseus; OLD = ...
rjpond's user avatar
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6 votes

Why do some Latin adverbs have accent on the last syllable?

It seems that Saint Augustine in your quote is describing the same phenomenon that we can see consistently marked in later Latin. While trying to read Marracci's 'Refutatio Alcorani' (https://books....
Jasper May's user avatar
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6 votes
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Vowel shortening before another vowel: Exceptions

I think of hiatus vowel shortening in Latin as a historical rule. Some linguistic analyses might treat it as a synchronically active morphophonological rule in certain contexts, like the conjugation ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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6 votes
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Pronunciation in medical terminology

As far as I can tell, there are no classical precedents for the specific form of the ending -oideus. It ultimately comes from Ancient Greek -οειδής, an ending found mostly on third-declension ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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5 votes

When did Old Latin develop initial stress?

-very brief and disorganized notes (not a full answer), maybe someone else will be willing to write a more coherent answer- Weiss 2020: 527 "Primary stress on the initial syllable is inferred on ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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5 votes

Latin minimal pairs, distinguished only by the length of the vowel in an unstressed non-last syllable

Here are two more examples: From vĕnire and vēnire we get vĕnīmus and vēnīmus. From occĭdere and occīdere we get occĭdentes and occīdentes.
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
4 votes

Stress of presbyterum, presbytero

The first thing to check is vowel lengths. L&S indicates that all vowels in presbyter and presbyteri are short apart from the genitive ending -i. In presbyter the second last syllable by is light (...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
4 votes

Vowel shortening before another vowel: Exceptions

What do historical grammars of Latin usually say on this? Usually such exceptions do not get enough treatment in historical grammars of Latin, e.g. “Bei den klassischen Messungen wie āēr, Aenēās usw. ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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4 votes

How is stress realized in Latin phonetically?

We don't exactly know. In Greek, we have a pretty good idea of how the accent worked: it involved a change in pitch, which was supposedly close to the interval of a fifth (as the grammarian Dionysius ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
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When did the penult stress rule disappear?

I think you're mistaken when you say "certain sound changes in the Romance languages, like posttonic vowel syncope ..., still rely on the penult stress rules". There are two separate processes ...
varro's user avatar
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4 votes
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Were enclitics considered part of a word for stress purposes?

As you mentioned, it is very difficult to say anything clear about stress in Classical Latin, because there is little evidence, either direct or indirect, of the position of the stress. As Joonas ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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4 votes

Dating the penult rule

By the third century BCE… …probably. We're not quite sure when. In a question about Old Latin meters, an anonymous user brought up Mercado's convincing argument that the Saturnian was based on accent. ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
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Gemination after stressed vowel

You're right that such gemination is not correct Classical pronunciation, and I believe the answer to your question whether it occurred in post-Classical Latin/Romance is no. Italian amata does not, ...
TKR's user avatar
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3 votes
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How to place a second stress on a long word

There are various practical systems of pronunciation — in the UK we find the versions of Oxford, of Westminster School, the Roman Catholic Church and so on. As far as I know, none is really ...
Tom Cotton's user avatar
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3 votes

Gemination after stressed vowel

I don't know exactly why you have heard pronunciations of Italian amata with a long /tː/, but I would guess this is just a case of different speakers using different phonetic durations for ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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3 votes
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Moving the stress in sung Latin

I've never seen Latin set like this, by French composers or others: Couperin, Charpentier, Lully, Fauré, Duruflé, Poulenc—they all set their Latin so that it follows the stress pattern we all know and ...
Joel Derfner's user avatar
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3 votes

Does Greek accent ever affect Latin stress?

Weiss's Outline of the Historical and Comaprative Grammar of Latin, p. 112, gives some examples of exactly this phenomenon: Philippus (Gk. Φίλιππος) scans in Old Latin verse as if its second syllable ...
TKR's user avatar
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3 votes

Vowel shortening before another vowel: Exceptions

I can only answer parts of your question, but I hope this is of some use before a more elaborate answer appears. Are they all proper nouns or are there any exceptions with common nouns? Two words ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
3 votes
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How is the word "Eboracum" stressed in Latin?

If the underlying Celtic form was in fact Eburākon, then one would expect it to have been borrowed into Latin with a long ā and hence pronounced with the accent on the paenultima.
fdb's user avatar
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3 votes

When did the penult stress rule disappear?

I cannot agree with your statement that “vowel length seems to have been lost very early” in Latin. Latin long and short vowels develop differently in the daughter languages. For example Latin short e ...
fdb's user avatar
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3 votes

Where to place accent after applying diaeresis?

I'm doubtful that the diaeresis would be used in this way: you can't generally break diphthongs into two short vowels metri causa. There are occasional examples in Homer of disyllabic scansion of what ...
TKR's user avatar
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2 votes

Stressed syllables in certain prefixed verb forms

The Arch poet (c1130-1167) wrote a mock confession to his patron, Archbishop, and Arch-Chancellor to Barbarossa. Because his verse here written in stressed trochaics, Odds are stressed and Evens ...
Hugh's user avatar
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2 votes

Did Classical Latin stress impact any sound changes?

I don't know of any obvious or systematic effects that Classical Latin stress had on sound changes. The non-obvious effects that I've seen proposed for Classical Latin stress are "brevis brevians" or ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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