For basic mathematics, I’ve found some answers in the Institutiones Physicæ by Floriani Dalham, published in 1752:
1+2 = 3 would be read unus plus duo sunt tres
Additio est duorum, vel plurium Numerorum in unum collectio. Indicatur per signum + adjectum, id est : plus. (…)
Dicatur : 4+2+2+7 sunt 15
(Caput III, p. 26)
1-2 = -1 would be read unus ...
Surely Cicero and other great orators instructed their pupils to never, ever say <filler word here> when speaking?
Strangely enough, they didn't.
According to Michael Erard's Um. . .: Slips, Stumbles, and Verbal Blunders, and What They Mean, warnings of filler verbs are not present in the books on rhetoric of Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, or other ...
Here is the stub of an answer.
There were many, many Greeks in Rome around the turn of the millennium. Many of them were educated slaves, 'imported' to teach Greek to Roman children of the middle and upper classes. The language was considered an essential part of the education of an educated Roman child. It may be compared to the position of Latin in Europe ...
There is no clear evidence - we simply don't know.
Harm Pinkster (Pinkster 2015) writes that even though there may have been something comparable to the falling or rising tone known from many languages, including English,
we are not able to recover much information about Latin intonation (p. 15).
Pinkster mentions (in a footnote) that ancient ...
A few comments about pre-requisites to teaching students to speak Latin.
Concerning the difficulty to reconstitute the accents of Ancient Latin, the question of "what should be the correct accent" should not a subject of concern (English teachers do not worry that accents of the 16th century were markedly different from those of today, even when ...
Well, here's one example I found:
nam contra Graeci adspirare ei solent, ut pro Fundanio Cicero testem qui primam eius litteram dicere non possit inridet.
the Greeks on the other hand habitually aspirate this letter [f], so that Cicero,
in his defence of Fundanius, mocked a witness who couldn't pronounce the first letter of that name.
There is some division on opinion whether it is good to practice Latin by making translations from English (or another native language), or better to translate solely from Latin authors.
Arguments in favour of Latin prose composition and conversation are the active learning aspect, the element of fun involved and the auditory (natural) acquisition of the ...
I am a Dominican friar; in our priory in Olomouc in Czech Republic we pray parts of the Liturgy of the Hours in Latin. Brothers most fluent in Latin pronounce all the lengths mostly correctly, others (including me) try to pronounce them making many mistakes. Since our native language distinguishes long and short vowels, pronouncing everything short sound bit ...
My suggestion for this purpose is ceterum.
See part II.A in the L&S entry for the use of this adverb to introduce something new.
The entry in L&S comes with attestations in classical literature.
For another kind of example, consider perhaps the most famous unattested phrase of classical Latin:
Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam.
There are ...
It seems that nam can be used like this, "to resume the course of thought after a parenthetical interruption".
In practice, however, it was hard to find examples that actually capture the full sense of "so, as I was saying/to get back to the matter at hand". Instead, nam is more often used (even in the examples cited by Lewis and Short) to say something ...
Evan der Millner of London has a very good site called Latinum and a few Youtube courses which are very good from a conversational perspective. He bases the course on Manesca's Serial and Oral method, which is a very good way to learn a language orally. He argues (and I agree with him) that languages are, first and foremost, oral phenomena and thus it is ...
As far as I can tell, most mathematical discourse would be done in Greek. Latin was used for engineering purposes, but speaking unambiguously about mathematics became rather awkward.
For example, Vitruvius's description of the Pythagorean formula, from De Architectura IX.6:
namque si sumantur regulae tres e quibus una sit pedes III ...
I don't know about the Vatican. But I've met very few people at conventicula, living-Latin events, etc., who make any distinction whatsoever. I don't generally have a problem, I think in part because nobody talks in insane periods like Cicero uses for orations, and with many speakers, unfortunately, though by no means a majority, word order is closer to ...
Similar things do occur in Latin literature, though I know of none that were part of a general tendency of the kind in which you are interested.
There are well-known illustrations of snobbery, some of which involve foreigners. Catullus LXXXIV, for example, is a witty offering about misplaced aitches, beginning Chommoda dicebat, si quando commode vellet / ...
Latin does not have a word "yes".
There are other ways to express the same idea, like the English "exactly", "indeed", "very much so", and so on.
From an English point of view, you need some kind of a circumlocution to say "yes" in Latin.
The common translation ita vero means "truly so".
I would not say that this pair of words is yes, but that it can be ...
In contemporary spoken Latin in Finnish all vowel quantities are carefully articulated.
There is nothing special about the first declension ablative.
I have therefore learned to expect it, and it will be easy to confuse me by ignoring vowel lengths in pronunciation.
The Latin news broadcast Nuntii Latini is a prime example of Latin spoken in Finland, but it ...
I had a Latin teacher who insisted that the long a at the end of ablatives of first declension nouns be pronounced for a noticeably longer time than other vowels. This was the only long vowel she insisted upon and she made a point of it, not only telling us that it was significant, but requiring a very exaggerated lengthening. I'm not qualified to have an ...
There are lots and lots of recordings around. Check YouTube for Terentius Tunberg and Milena Minkova. Also for Wilifried Stroh, whom I find very entertaining to watch (a series of his lectures in Latin is here: Wilfried Stroh - Valahfridus - Latin Lectures.
There's also a collection of audio recordings of various lecture series of his at Wilfried Stroh (...
In the English phrases
"Even so," "More so," or (historical) "Exactly so," 'so' = ita
Ita (adverb) so, thus,in this way.
(and also by itself)
ita C. In affirmations, esp. in replies, yes, it is so, just so, true: quid istic tibi negoti est? Dav. Mihin'? Si. Ita, Lewis & Short TUFTS
Where a bald and unconvincing monosyllable requires extra ...
J.N.Adams discusses this in Bilingualism and the Latin language. According to the author, there are examples of imperfect Greek and Latin by second language speakers, but not evidence of a pidgin language.
One of the best speakers I know, Daniel Petterson from Latinitium, read, and reread (and reread and reread) the works of Plautus and Terence. It basically comes down to a lot of rereading of texts that you know and enjoy, and when you start. The focus isn't on a lot of texts, but rather a lot of rereading of specific texts.
2) Listen ...
As an aside, the Italian and Spanish (and to an extent French) “si” come from “sic” (thus) while French “oui”
Comes via a roundabout route from “hoc ille” (thus he).
It seems that Latin had quite a few affirmative idioms.
Both Donatus and Quintillian have chapters in which they describe barbarisms, though the examples areshort, sometimes only one or two words.
Donatus: Ars Major, translated Jim Marchand (pdf) lists four
types(sic) of mispronunciation and bad usage: adiectio, detractio,
inmutatio/ transmutatio litterae, syllabae, temporis (= vowel length)
Porro (Lewis and Short)
I Literally straight on, directly
2. In partic., in discourse. a. In the progress of an argument, or in a sequence of ideas, then, next, furthermore, moreover, besides:
'Porro,' is used twice at the beginning of a sentence in that sense in the CCC ms which gives instructions for 'Alea Evangelii,' linked to the ...
Spoken Latin is, of course, extant, but that's not the point here. We obviously don't have a corpus of, say, recorded every-day-life Latin from the first centuries (on either side). Comedy is typically, and I suppose for good reason, considered a decent source for close-to-real-life spoken Latin.
As far as I can tell, the answer that fdb provided to my question is completely correct; I just wanted to add some relevant information that I discovered recently when I was studying the inflection of nouns (particularly names) ending in -ēs.
Nouns/names ending in -es
Many names ending in -es come from Greek nouns of the first declension (which means that ...
This answer is based on what I would do in Latin, not on any rule I know.
It depends on context.
If you have both been silent for a while, then the introductory word indicates that you are about to say something; without it the other party is likely to miss your first actual word.
To this end, I often start simply with a "hmm...".
If you want something more ...