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26

That's actually not a rule. ab and ex can lose their consonant, but in fact it's far more common for them not to. Check out Lewis and Short's entries on them: ex/e ex always before vowels, and elsewhere more frequent than e; e. g. in Cic. Rep. e occurs 19 times, but ex 61 times, before consonants—but no rule can be given for the usage; cf., e.g., ex and ...


19

First, Galilaee sounds right. See this question about the vocative of Gnaeus for details. There are situations where one finds -ee- in Latin without the first e belonging to ae. What I found is not word-final, but I assume that is not important for your question. There are forms of deesse and deerrare, and if the diphthong ae is included, also forms of ...


15

It's an alternate form of ave; the L&S entry gives a couple of examples. Presumably this form arose through hypercorrection: since h was generally not pronounced in popular speech, confusion easily arose about which words did and did not contain it. Catullus makes fun of a certain Arrius who inserted h's where they weren't needed.


12

Secundus is regular, eqvus isn't There's a sound change called the "Boukólos Rule", which started back in Proto-Indo-European. When labiovelar consonants (like /kʷ/ and /gʷ/) appeared next to /w/ or /u/, they dissimilated and lost their labialization, becoming /k/ and /g/. The rule is named after one of the first known examples, Greek βουκόλος "cowherd". ...


12

The Vulgata is full with proper nouns having double -ee, specially as endings (e.g. Bersabee, Phacee, Osee). I imagine you are not particularly interested in these. Below are all the other words I could find: deest, deerunt, deessent, deerit, deerant, etc. E.g. Nm 21:5 locutusque contra Deum et Moysen, ait : Cur eduxisti nos de Ægypto, ut moreremur in ...


12

I wrote a longer answer to this on the English language stack exchange, but in the migration process it got deleted. Shorter answer: the quote is "ne sis frustra" from Plautus's play Miles Glorius and is a pun on "ne si frusta". Wikipedia synopsis: [Pyrgopolynices] is ambushed by Periplectomenus, and his cook Cario. The two men begin to beat him for ...


11

I would say that is a common abbreviation for "-que". Maybe you could find useful Cappelli's Dizionario di Abbreviature latine (a very detailed repertory of latin abbreviations). Take a look here. Here is the phrase with the soluted words: silensq(ue) sisto tuumq(ue) I would add that this is not a ligature but an abbreviation, while -st- of the word ...


11

The modern German roman-type ß was developed at the end of the 19th century as an analogue of the blackletter ß, which was a ligature of ſ and z (which is reflected in its name) that had slowly acquired letter status and looked distinctively different from your ſs (more like ſʒ). Some of the new ß designs may have been inspired by your ſs and similar forms. ...


10

Well, there is some fairly simple evidence that a sequence of two identical short vowels could in some cases be treated as equivalent to a single long vowel, namely that the former can contract into the latter: e.g. ĭĭt ~ īt, nĭhĭl ~ nīl. This does not necessarily imply that the pronunciations were identical, of course, but it does show that the two ...


10

There is a longstanding view that the interjection ave is not the imperative of the verb aveo “to long for”, but is a loan from Punic ḥawe (tentative vocalisation), the imperative of the Semitic verb ḥ-w-h “to live”. The first attestations are in Plautus, who also uses the plural havo (=Punic ḥawū) three times in his Poenulus. If this is true, then have ...


10

The story, as often, has to do with Proto-Indo-European laryngeals. Both these verbs had a laryngeal as the last consonant of the root: *deh₃-, *steh₂-. All the forms in Latin are based on the zero grade of these roots (i.e. the form without a vowel): *dh₃-, *sth₂-. Now, when a PIE laryngeal found itself between two consonants, in Latin the result was the ...


10

I'm afraid my answer is the boring one: free variation, based on the amount of space available. The tilde originally arose purely as an abbreviation: instead of writing an n or m in line with the text, it could be written above the vowel instead, saving a bit of space. Eventually its form got simplified into the tiny squiggle we use nowadays. But the ...


9

Note that the letter Z has been associated with affricate sounds like [ts] for a very long time. Ancient use of "Z" for affricate sounds Zeta in Classical Attic Greek is thought to have represented [zd], but there is some evidence for [dz] as another pronunciation that existed in different dialects or stages of Greek. On this site, Alex B's answer to "Why ...


8

The general rule for the use of e and ex as prepositions can be found in Latin grammars like Gildersleeve's: Ē is used before consonants only, ex before both vowels and consonants. (§417.6) Lewis and Short write that ex is still more common than e in front of consonants, but that some forms tend to use e: ex or ē (ex always before vowels, and elsewh. ...


8

It's usual to attribute it to a point in time when Latin had a strong stress accent on the first syllable, so interior vowels in open syllables weakened to i or (depending on the environment) u. So, we posit something like: *in+'habere -> *'inhabere -> 'inhibere -> inhi'bere. (IPA: [ɪn+ˈhɑbeːrɛ] -> [ˈɪnhɑbeːrɛ] -> [ˈɪnhɪbeːrɛ] -> [ɪnhɪˈbeːrɛ]) (As a side ...


8

I believe it is supposed to be emo, "I buy". This would make sense in the context. I don't know whether it was a typing error or whether the author mistook emere for an irregular verb of some kind. There is also a verb emeare (from e and meare), but it seems inappropriate here. An excellent tool for analyzing passages like this, when they are correctly ...


8

A word search confirms that -olus is used instead of -ulus after a vowel. A Perseus search for words ending in -olus reveals (among a few false positives, like malevolus) that every diminutive form follows a vowel. A similar search for -[vowel]ulus, such as -iulus, only returns false positives. This is confirmed in Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar: [...


8

Check out the Epigraphic Database Heidelberg. It thankfully allows you to search words, which will allow you to look at deeper results. From a cursory search, though it seems that conl- is earlier, but by the Augustan Age, both were frequently used.: For conl: note that Sulla's inscription in Delos has conlegia and conlata. It's early and frequent, even ...


7

Archaic and Classical Latin First of all, the letter Z has never been common in Archaic and Classical Latin, for a number of reasons, primarily because there was no such phoneme (see more on rhotacism in Latin). The earliest example of Z we have from Latin inscriptions is dated 81 BC, although it can be found in earlier Latin abecedaria - see my other ...


7

Rarely ee can be used as geminatio vocalium, i.e. to denote that the e is pronounced long. This was mainly used in Oscan and sometimes borrowed to Latin. For example leege in this inscription: Vediovei patrei / genteiles Iuliei // Vedi[ov]ei aara // Leege Albana dicata (aara also denotes long a). M. Loporcaro in Vowel Length from Latin to Romance notes ...


6

In Classical times, few digraphs were used. The letters K, Y, and Z were used for Greek words, along with the digraphs Ph, Th, Ch for aspirated stops, but other words were generally assimilated to Latin phonology. (Source: searching for the combinations below in the Packhum corpus and finding nothing.) Z was used for more foreign sounds in Late Latin. ...


6

Beekes writes that houtos is from *so-h²u-to-, “a univerbation of the *so/to- pronoun with the stem that also figures in autos”. In this case τηλικοῦτος is not tēlik + houto-, but tēliko + uto (without the pronoun *so).


6

"Ei" is almost never a diphthong. The exact list of examples depends on what you call a "diphthong". deinde and friends Cser (2016) argues that Latin has no genuine diphthongs, only vowel + glide sequences. Cser says that, if we set aside words with geminate /j.j/, /ej/ occurs in the following three related words: deinde, dein, deinceps (p. 32). As far ...


5

A couple quick observations: Millennium is a New Latin word, so I don't know why you wouldn't just use that. The Latin word for Camelot is Camuladonum, so you could do "Via Camuladonum" (assuming Camuladonum works like the name of the road rather than "a road in Camelot" or "the road to Camelot"). "Count" is comes, but I think you must know that as you ...


5

It must be que. The conjunction -que is very common in Latin, and it is no surprise it has it's own symbol. For example suumque is (almost) the same as et suum and means "and his own". The excerpt you have is a fragment, and the exact translation depends on more context.


5

My guess is that the similarity between poena and paenitere led to a misunderstanding by L&S. De Vaan, for example, doesn't mention poena in his entry on paenitere: paene 'almost, practicaly' [adv.] (Pl.+) Derivatives: paenitere (p.. -ui) 'to cause dissatisfaction, cause to regret' (Pl.+) ... The basic meaning of the stem *paen- seems to be '...


5

Considering that this is a word-internal short vowel before a labial consonant, it looks like this vowel comes from the "sonus medius". Unfortunately, I don't know that much about the patterns of variation in the use of u vs. i in the spelling of words like this. I was able to find the following passage in B. Kennedy's Latin grammar, Fifth Edition (1879): ...


5

The best word I know in this sense is lacrima with six variants. I have seen these spellings in dictionaries and elsewhere: lacrima lacruma lachryma lacryma dacrima dacruma These variations are due to the sound change d > l and the typical hypercorrections c > ch and i > y.


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