18 votes
Accepted

Why 'Vir' is the only word of 2nd declension with -ir ending?

Vir developed its s-less ending from the process of syncope described in Alex B.'s answer to "Why do some 2nd decl. "-er" adjectives and nouns drop the "e" in the stem?": ...
  • 22.8k
13 votes
Accepted

Why is *dōna* the plural acc. Instead of *donos* like the rest of the 2nd declensions?

Dōnum is neuter; amīcus, fīlius, and ager are masculine. Neuter nouns are always the same in both the nominative and accusative case, in both singular and plural. See this question for more about how ...
11 votes

Wordplay with "Vox Populi" (populus, m vs. populus, f)

There is a small difference between the people and the tree: vowel length. Indicating long vowels with a bar and short ones with a cup as usual, the masculine word is pŏpŭlŭs and ...
11 votes
Accepted

Are there any other neuter words of the second declension that end on -us than "virus"?

Tuomo Pekkanen's Ars Grammatica (a Latin grammar in Finnish) says that the second declension has three neuters ending in -us: vīrus, vulgus and pelagus. They are only used in the singular, and ...
10 votes
Accepted

In Vulgate, Matthaeus 4:23, it says "et prædicans Evangelium regni". Shouldn't it be "regno" (dative) rather than "regni" (genitive)?

The Latin is a pretty literal translation of the Greek: καὶ κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας "τῆς βασιλείας" (tēs basileias) is genitive, not dative. He is preaching the Gospel of the ...
  • 37.3k
9 votes
Accepted

What is the plural of virus, vulgus and pelagus?

Acc. pl. pelagē occurs in Lucretius, De Rerum Natura 6.619: at pelage multa et late substrata videmus This is simply the Greek plural: the word is a loan of Greek πέλαγος, whose nom./acc. pl. is ...
  • 29.3k
9 votes

Forms of 2nd Declension Neuter Nouns ending in -ium

Here’s a summary of what most authoritative Latin grammars say on the genitive singular ending of –io stems (Weiss 2009/2011: 222-223; Leumann 1977: 424-425; Sihler ). For the sake of simplicity and ...
  • 11.4k
8 votes

Forms of 2nd Declension Neuter Nouns ending in -ium

Edgar H. Sturtevant's dissertation "Contraction in the case forms of the Latin io- and ia stems, and of deus, is, and idem" (1902) seems to have some relevant info, although I don't know if ...
  • 22.8k
8 votes

Why is *dōna* the plural acc. Instead of *donos* like the rest of the 2nd declensions?

This is because of the gender of the noun. Donum is neuter, wheras filius, amicus, etc, are masculine. The plural accusative for 2nd declension neuter nouns is -a.
  • 7,662
7 votes

Why is *dōna* the plural acc. Instead of *donos* like the rest of the 2nd declensions?

donum is neuter, and hence its ending in both the nominative and accusative plural is -a.
  • 2,839
7 votes
Accepted

What categories of substantives of the second declension are feminine?

A summary based on a number of sources (Kühner and Holzweissig 1912, Leumann 1977, Tronskii 1960, Weiss 2009/2011) humus, vannus (always feminine); alvus, colus (these two words alternated between ...
  • 11.4k
6 votes
Accepted

Forms of 2nd Declension Neuter Nouns ending in -ium

A full table of "standard" (post-Augustan) -ius/-ium endings would be: M SG M PL N SG N PL NOM -ius -iī -ium -ia GEN -iī -iōrum -iī -iōrum DAT -iō -iīs -iō -...
  • 54.8k
5 votes

What categories of substantives of the second declension are feminine?

Kennedy's Revised Latin Primer gives a list of four nouns of the Second Declension ending in -us, which are: alvus, paunch; colus, distaff; humus, ground; vannus, winnowing-fan. The same source ...
  • 17.7k
4 votes

What is the plural of virus, vulgus and pelagus?

It seems there are many theories, among them viri, virora, and virus. (The point of the article is that it's pointless to try to figure it out.) Here, however, is a refutation of the article linked ...
3 votes

How did vulgus get its ending?

There surely is an etymological reason, but unfortunately we don’t know it. Or there is no consensus about it. All grammars mention the three second-declension neuters in -us, pelagus, virus and ...
  • 2,926
1 vote

Second declension feminine plants

It is the principle of feminine, that gives birth. Not all plants are feminine, but e.g. trees are, while fruit is in general neuter. E.g. malus, -i, f. (apple tree) and malum, -i, n. (apple). Not ...
  • 41

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