13 votes

How did Caesar pronounce Latin overlined vowels?

Q1: my first question is whether overlining is the same as "stress"? Not really. The overline indicates vowel length—how long you sustain the vowel sound—which is a component of stress in ...
user avatar
  • 51.2k
13 votes
Accepted

Minimal pair for hidden quantity

The example I feel most certain about is various forms of sum “be” and edo “eat”, in particular the infinitives esse and ēsse and the third-person singular forms est and ēst.
user avatar
  • 21.3k
13 votes

Minimal pair for hidden quantity

lustrum 'a mud pit, den' ≠ lūstrum 'a purification ceremony' (prob. from luere 'to expiate') are not to be mixed. To quote Festus from Paulus: lŭstra significant lacūnās lutōsās, quae sunt in silvīs ...
user avatar
11 votes

How did Caesar pronounce Latin overlined vowels?

In addition to Draconis' excellent answer, you may also be interested to know that: The overline is called a macron. Macrons were not used by the ancient Romans, and today they are almost only used ...
user avatar
10 votes
Accepted

Does CUM EŌ EO mean I go with them?

Well, no. eo is singular, so it would be "with him" or "with it." If you wanted to make it plural, it would be cum eīs eō. Also, the final -o on present verbs is long (although ...
user avatar
  • 39.5k
9 votes
Accepted

Knowing the two quantities of 'est'

Servius (4th cent. CE) in his commentary on Virgil writes: sānē EDO habet et rēctam, sed antīquam dēclīnātiōnem, ut 'edō edis edit', et anomalam, ut 'edō ēs ēst': quārum secunda et tertia persōnae ...
user avatar
8 votes

Was the 'i' in cuius pronounced as 'j' or did it form a diphthong with 'u'

The i in cuius was pronounced as /j/. We can arrive at this conclusion several ways: Firstly is the history of spelling variations: the standard spelling of cuius was not always cuius, and was ...
user avatar
  • 1,381
8 votes

What can we say about the pronunciation of Z?

Two reasons for thinking that Z was pronounced in Latin as a fricative: The spelling SS was once used to represent it, as you mention in your prior question When did the Romans start using Z? The ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
8 votes

Littera Canina in Classical Latin and Old Latin

Old Latin /r/ probably had non-trill allophones: at minimum, a tap/flap [ɾ], and likely approximant and fricative allophones as well. The existence of [ɾ] in Old Latin is supported by rare cases of /d/...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
7 votes
Accepted

Why are some sounds differently pronounced to how they are written?

It sounds like you are learning the reconstructed pronunciation system for Latin. This pronunciation system represents what we think ancient Latin speakers sounded like. Latin speakers used Latin ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
7 votes

S at the end of Present Active Participle Pronunciation

final -ns being /nz/ occurs exclusively in anglicized Latin pronunciation What you noticed is a feature of English pronunciation of Latin. English speakers typically use a certain type of anglicized ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
6 votes

Resources for pronouncing Greek

An obvious first is of course W. Sidney Allen’s Vox Graeca: The Pronunciation of Classical Greek, third edition, Cambridge UP 1987, latest reprint 1994, currently print-on-demand (but with very quick ...
6 votes

how would Caeser say "hodiē iānuae domuum sunt ātrae"?

Hear me pronounce [ˈhɔd̪iʲeːˈjaːnuʷae̯ˈd̪omuʷõˑs̠ʊ̃nˈt̪äːt̪ɾae̯]. I transcribe [õˑ] as half-long because nasal vowels are inherently longer than oral ones and nobody transcribes the French/...
user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Pronunciation in medical terminology

As far as I can tell, there are no classical precedents for the specific form of the ending -oideus. It ultimately comes from Ancient Greek -οειδής, an ending found mostly on third-declension ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
6 votes
Accepted

What was the most common pronunciation of the interjection "io" in Classical Latin?

Both of them are the same thing, and are pronounced the same way. It is just a matter of how to write it down. The left one, /ˈi.oː/, is phonemic transcription, showing the phonemes of the sound ...
user avatar
6 votes

How has the pronunciation of the letter "c" developed?

For context, none of the pronunciation systems used today for Latin developed by continuous change from the pronunciation of Latin as it was originally spoken by the Romans. The natural sound changes ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
6 votes

Why is no one pronouncing the final 'm' as a nasal vowel?

People writing about the pronunciation of Latin word-final "m" often use certain terminology somewhat vaguely or even incorrectly, so first I want to clarify how I use terms. Many different ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
6 votes

Littera Canina in Classical Latin and Old Latin

Probably not, but it's hard to be sure. As far as I've been able to tell, we don't have any grammarians describing the sounds of Latin letters before the Classical period. The phrase littera canīna ...
user avatar
  • 51.2k
5 votes

Was the 'i' in cuius pronounced as 'j' or did it form a diphthong with 'u'

Cuius is typically thought to have been pronounced as /kuj.jus/ with short /u/ (which was possibly realized phonetically as [ʊ]) followed by geminate (i.e. long, or doubled) /j.j/. The phonetic ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
5 votes

Syllabification of "anhelo"

Partial answer. As you say, -nh- is quite a rare letter sequence within a word. The word's metrical behavior suggests the division a-nhe-lo The only perspective I can speak from confidently is a ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
5 votes

Is it possible to make sense of the classical words and pronunciation in Dune, by Frank Herbert?

"Atreides" refers to the House of Atreus (Ἀτρεύς). The genitive of Ἀτρεύς is Ἀτρέως. Atreides is a singular first-declension masculine patronymic (Ἀτρείδης or Ἀτρεΐδης) formed with the ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
4 votes
Accepted

How were τὰ φυσικά, φυσικός, and φύσις pronounced in Aristotle's time?

/tà pʰysiká/, /pʰysikós/, and /pʰýsis/. υ in Classical Attic was /y/, not /u/ (in Aristotle's time /u/ was written ου), and φ was still /pʰ/ (an aspirated p sound), not /f/. Classical Attic still had ...
user avatar
  • 6,159
4 votes

When did the consonant U (i.e., V) begin to be pronounced as the fricative [v] instead of [w]?

Greek transcriptions with β (beta) support dating the start of the change in the pronunciation of Latin V as early as 200BC While the earliest evidence in texts written in the Latin alphabet for the ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
4 votes

Are there minimal pairs between the acute and circumflex accent?

I have always thought there were many such minimal pairs, e.g. ἦ "verily" v. ἤ "or".
user avatar
  • 18.5k
4 votes

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī?

If I understand correctly what you are asking for (the "rolling" of the r on the front of the tongue in patri, librum, etc.), as mentioned previously in comments and answers, modern ...
user avatar
4 votes

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī?

As MPW said in their comment, this is a trill, a common feature of many languages. I'm no linguist, but I would classify the one in your recording as an alveolar trill, similar to that in modern ...
user avatar
  • 883
4 votes
Accepted

Pronunciation of aspiration in ἔδεισεν δ᾽ ὁ γέρων

Phonetically, there is little doubt that this sequence would have been pronounced [-endho-]. To take your possible answers in reverse order: 5 can be ruled out because if this was the pronunciation it ...
user avatar
  • 28.2k
4 votes

When did "ae" become [e]?

This has been a disputed question. I have not gotten a chance to review the relevant literature yet, but here's what András Cser says in "Aspects of the Phonology and Morphology of Classical ...
user avatar
  • 21.3k
3 votes

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī?

There are many types of "r" sounds that phoneticists can distinguish. The one you have in the link is a "trill," a "tap," or a "flap." It is not clear to me ...
user avatar
  • 2,480
3 votes

Are there minimal pairs between the acute and circumflex accent?

I came across another example today: μῆτις, ιος vs μή-τῐς, μή-τι. It may not strictly qualify, as there also is a difference in vowel quantity for the final syllable, but in any case, As both their ...
user avatar
  • 3,007

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible