28

Bennett's New Latin Grammar (this link will take you to appropriate section) offers several helpful rules of thumb for the agreement of an adjective with multiple nouns. Although I recommend reading the above entry, which is fairly short, the basic principles are: Attributive adjectives agree with the nearest noun in both gender and number, e.g. "Filius ...


11

Pinkster 2015 mentions the following observable trends regarding the omission of esse. it is more frequent with the 3rd person than in the 1st or 2nd; it is more frequent with present indicative forms; it is more frequent in simple nominal sentences etc. (see pp. 201-204 for more details). Stolz and Schmalz add that the omission of esse is regular in ...


9

What you're calling a "predicate noun" is, in fact, the subject. In the Latin construction, unlike the English translation, the thing possessed is the subject, so the verb has to agree with it. E.g. in Puellis est rosa, even though this can be translated as "The girls have a rose", a literal translation would be something like "A rose is to/for the girls". ...


8

If the adjective is plural and it refers to words of several genders, I seem to recall the masculine is used by default. But I believe a Roman author would indeed recast a sentence like this, especially because it also refers to a neuter word. If the adjective is singular, it should agree with the last noun mentioned.


7

Yes to the first, usually no to the second. In Latin, esse can almost always be dropped if the meaning is clear. This is even true when it's connected to another verb form, like in a perfect passive captus [est] or a passive periphrastic delenda [est]. Linguistically, this is called zero copula, and also appears in e.g. Russian. Consider also English ...


6

The thing being possessed is the subject in this construction. The verb agrees with the subject, but the subject in your example is not the girl. Do not confuse the plural nominative and singular dative, although they both end in -ae. Consider these examples (cases indicated in parentheses): Girl has a rose. Puellae (dat) est rosa (nom). Girls have a rose. ...


2

συμβαίνω in the sense "happen to" (section A.III.b of the LSJ entry) takes the dative for the person something happens to. In this sentence, the dative it takes is the relative pronoun ᾧ: "to whom it happens". The copula εἶναι requires that its predicate should appear in the same case as whatever word it's being equated with; most often ...


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