26

That's actually not a rule. ab and ex can lose their consonant, but in fact it's far more common for them not to. Check out Lewis and Short's entries on them: ex/e ex always before vowels, and elsewhere more frequent than e; e. g. in Cic. Rep. e occurs 19 times, but ex 61 times, before consonants—but no rule can be given for the usage; cf., e.g., ex and ...


20

The similarity is a coincidence; these words are unrelated. Etymological dictionaries such as De Vaan's give the following account of the two words: The earlier form of the conjunction cum is quom; this is attested in early Latin, and also in the word quoniam (< quom iam). It is descended from Proto-Indo-European *kʷom "when" and has cognates in other IE ...


17

I believe that would be considered very odd. Before certain words, ab is almost never used by any author. Consider for example *ab te, which is found 0 times in the Hewlett-Packard repository. If you replace that with a te, that's 831 results, and 275 for abs te. Similarly, ?ab me gives you only 1 result; it happens to be from Cicero, but I suspect it to be ...


11

Here are the Vulgate versions of the two verses you mention: Colossians 1.16: quoniam in ipso condita sunt universa in cælis, et in terra, visibilia, et invisibilia, sive throni, sive dominationes, sive principatus, sive potestates: omnia per ipsum et in ipso creata sunt Acts 17.28: In ipso enim vivimus, et movemur, et sumus: sicut et quidam ...


11

An alternative way to phrase the question is to ask whether a preposition should be repeated after et. I went through a book for all the examples of et used with prepositions in a way that would allow both options. I excluded the preposition inter because it would make little sense to say inter Sequanos et inter Helvetios instead of inter Sequanos et ...


11

For what I know, the double prefixation beginning with per- is the most productive (I quote only a few examples): perincertus [per+ in + certus] (Sall. hist. 4,1,2 [Gell. 18,4,4]: perincertum stolidior an vanior); perindignus [per + in + dignus] (Suet. Tib. 50, 2: tulit etiam perindigne actum in senatu); perincommodus [per + in + commodus] (Liv....


10

The causal meaning of these two prepositions developed separately, so the history of their usage is a bit complex. But in Classical Latin and after, while some authors used the two interchangeably, ob became more and more limited to literary language, while propter was used in popular language. Origins Silvia Luraghi's paper "Prepositions in Cause ...


10

What you've neglected (an easy thing to neglect) is the case that "in" governs with each meaning. "In" plus the ablative connotes coherence and inclusion, and it's roughly equivalent to English "in." "In" plus the accusative, however, means something far closer to English "toward," which, if you think militarily (as the Romans often did), is fairly easy to ...


9

There is one word that seems to fit the bill: quoad. Although this word has a temporal ("as long as") and spatial ("as far as") meaning, Lewis and Short also gives the following meaning: B.3: With respect to, as to It also suggests that it derives from quod attinet ad. An interesting note is that all three classical examples given are dubious readings, ...


8

The general rule for the use of e and ex as prepositions can be found in Latin grammars like Gildersleeve's: Ē is used before consonants only, ex before both vowels and consonants. (§417.6) Lewis and Short write that ex is still more common than e in front of consonants, but that some forms tend to use e: ex or ē (ex always before vowels, and elsewh. ...


7

DRN 2.393: aut quia ni mirum maioribus est elementis / aut magis hamatis inter se perque plicatis. This one is somewhat dubious. It could be analysed as an adverb. I think the problem is that prepositions and adverbs are not entirely separate in Latin/Greek, and I think in in your example could be analysed as an adverb as well, if we should ignore ...


7

They're all different uses! Different verbs will have different constructions, and you cannot, as a rule, ever do a one-to-one correspondence based on English's idioms. Take "take away," for example. You actually have a couple of options depending on the thing you're taking away. Some words add on ex to the beginning of a verbalized noun, like exanimare "to ...


7

You are correct that extra is a preposition here. Although it can be an adverb, it has a clear object here that would not make syntactical sense otherwise. This particular argument follows Spinoza's earlier assertion that a cause must either "be contained" in a thing's nature or be given "outside of" that thing: denique notandum hanc causam propter quam ...


7

If I may supplement TKR's answer: Colossians 1:16 is decidedly ambiguous. The Greek original has: ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα, τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα, εἴτε θρόνοι εἴτε κυριότητες εἴτε ἀρχαὶ εἴτε ἐξουσίαι τὰ πάντα δι᾽αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται which the Vulgate renders as: quoniam in ipso condita sunt universa in ...


7

Lewis and Short provide some guidance on the limitations of the pre-consonant use of ab: [ab] has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only one used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the ...


7

I'm not sure there is a "why", but it probably happened under the influence of contemporary vernacular languages and/or Vulgar Latin, since French, Italian, and Spanish also use more prepositions than Latin. This is probably also what steered Latin towards using quod instead of the accusative with infinitive. Around the same time, I believe cases began to ...


7

In this case, post is being used as an adverb, not a preposition; essentially, it's being treated as a comparative adverb*, and the ablative paucis diebus is expressing the 'degree of difference,' as it can do also with other comparative adverbs and adjectives**. So literally, the phrase means 'after by a few days.' That said, paucos post dies, where post ...


6

Here is a relevant passage from the second-century (CE) grammarian Velius Longus: antiquos scimus et abs te dixisse: nos contenti sumus a te dicere. scimus ipsos et ab Lucio dixisse: nos observamus ut [ab] praeponatur his nominibus quae a vocali incipiunt, ut cum dicimus ab Olympo. non adsumitur autem haec b littera, quotiens nomina a consonante incipiunt,...


6

With is such a versatile word in English that how's it actually being used is sometimes obscured. Consider the following: I am going to the store with my friends. I am making a house with the best tools. With is used in these sentences, but they're using it very differently. The first expresses accompaniment: the friend are coming along. The second ...


6

Pro means 'before' in the sense of 'in front of, in the presence of', as in he stood before the judge, but to my knowledge doesn't have a temporal sense. Ab means 'after' in the sense of 'from, since', as in I've like snow since childhood, but that's all. Neither quite has the meaning you're looking for.


6

The L&S entry is pretty clear, in my opinion. Per takes the accusative, but it has mistakenly been used with the ablative. It cites two examples from later inscriptions: Inscr. Miseni Repert. ex a. p. Chr. n. 159 Inscr. Orell. 3300 After some tracking down, I found it in Campania tardoantica (284-604 d.C.). Here is a relevant image from pg. 283:


6

Postpositive cum is rather unique in Latin in this regard (but not for PIE - see below), although there are some other postpositive uses found in Latin; they are well-known, e.g. Leumann mentions quo-ad (cf. ad-huc or ad-eo), see Fortson 2010b: 136 for more examples. Basically, there are two approaches - either postpositive cum is an archaic holdover (...


6

As L&S put it, in their classic textwall style (entry for in, II.C.2): Of the object or end in view, regarded also as the motive of action or effect: “non te in me illiberalem, sed me in se neglegentem putabit,” Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 16: “neglegentior in patrem,” Just. 32, 3, 1: “in quem omnes intenderat curas,” Curt. 3, 1, 21: “quos ardere in proelia vidi,...


5

It seems in mari would be a suitable translation of the English “at sea.” For example, M. Tullius Cicero wrote,1 vix in ipsis tectis et oppidis frigus infirma valetudine vitatur, nedum in mari et via sit facile abesse ab iniuria temporis. which Evelyn Shuckburgh translated into English as,2 Even in houses and towns it is difficult to avoid cold when ...


5

The Oxford Latin Dictionary lists syncopated forms for post meridiem: posmeridiem and pomeridiem (cf. Italian pomeriggio); both of these would be short enough for your needs. However, although OLD has entries for both, the only attestation I've managed to find so far is Quintilian, Institutio oratoria 9.4.39, which actually has pos meridiem in the version of ...


5

Ne...quidem can most definitely surround nouns in cases other than nominative: Apuleius, Metamorphoses 9.27 (genitive): non sum barbarus nec agresti morum squalore praeditus nec ad exemplum naccinae truculentiae sulpuris te letali fumo necabo ac ne iuris quidem seueritate lege de adulteriis ad discrimen uocabo capitis tam uenustum tamque pulchellum ...


5

As Rafael points out in the comments, the pattern nēmō nisi is attested Classically, though personally I would use nisi quam amō or the like rather than nisi amor. To use Rafael's example, from Cicero's In Pisonem 7: …ut nemo, nisi qui mecum esset, civium esse in numero videretur. …that nobody seemed to be among the citizens, unless they were with me. ...


5

I would not read that as an omitted preposition. The plain ablative also has its uses, and here it is used in the instrumental sense: the donkeys were loaded with breads. Notice that here the English "with" indicates an instrument, whereas in cum asinis ("with donkeys") it indicates a companion. Companions are typically expressed with cum and ablative in ...


4

Here are two apparent counterexamples that I think are not really counterexamples. I post them here to give people an opportunity to confirm or refute my understanding of them (I'll be grateful for either). Argumentum ab auctoritate est fortissimum in lege. One might say that an authority is outside the topic and therefore should follow the ad pattern. ...


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