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22

The plural form would be simply: Venimus, vidimus, vicimus. This is the perfect tense, so all verbs have the same endings and the nice parallel remains.


15

As usual, to answer this question we need to step into our comparative linguistics-fueled time machine and go back to Proto-Indo-European times, so we can see what function the ending -a, which we know as a neuter plural ending, had in PIE. In PIE, this ending -a (or rather *-(e)h₂) did not form plurals, but collectives. A collective refers to a group of ...


14

You should use a distributive. Cicero, ad Atticum, 5. 3: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die This works for all such plural nouns, but you should take care over the case and gender. As with some larger cardinal numbers, it's a common mistake to forget that. [Additional clarification] Unae litterae is not necessarily as wrong as ...


12

In Latin, nouns belong to different groups, which are called declensions. The word insula is of the first declension, whereas the word oppidum is of the second declension. Each declension has its own endings. In addition, oppidum is neuter. Neuter words of the second declension have a singular ending -um, plural -a; words of the first declension have a ...


11

Yes, the nominative plural of axis is axes. Mundi 'of the world' is the genitive singular of mundus 'world', and you probably wouldn't pluralize it in most contexts (presumably there's still only one world), but should it become necessary to do so, the genitive plural is mundorum 'of the worlds'. Axes mundi reads correctly to me, for your purposes.


10

(This answer is based on Weiss's Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin, which is usually the place to go for this kind of thing.) The most common Indo-European 3pl active ending is -nt(i), which is part of the familiar set -m(i), -s(i), -t(i), ..., -nt(i). (The 1pl and 2pl are a bit harder to reconstruct because they vary more in the individual ...


9

The plural would be aleae iactae sunt. Alea / aleae is nominative, because it's the subject of a passive verb-form. Note that, if you used the accusative case for alea, the verb would have to be in the active and its subject would be implicit, or else would have to be a noun or pronoun. So, aleam / aleas iecit means 'he (she, it) threw the di(c)e'. ...


9

Acc. pl. pelagē occurs in Lucretius, De Rerum Natura 6.619: at pelage multa et late substrata videmus This is simply the Greek plural: the word is a loan of Greek πέλαγος, whose nom./acc. pl. is πελάγη. A Packard search finds no results for vira, virora, vulga, vulgora.


9

Leumann (p. 421) mentions two cases: spoken gen.pl. drachmum and amphorum; in dactylic poetry, four-syllable masculine nouns, besides the regular forms, could also have gen.pl. in -um, mostly compounds with -cola and -gena (e.g. agricolum in Lucr. 4.586 or caelicolum; Troiugenum), and some Greek proper nouns (Gangaridum, Aeneadum, Phaselitum). The ...


9

See: Does "Ego Peccator" mean "I'm Sinner"? For the plural, it would be peccatores. Scelesti is more "the wicked," which is not the same as peccatores in Christian theology. In Romans 3.23, for example, Paul writes that: omnes enim peccaverunt For all have sinned Scelesti however would be a sinner without redemption, ...


9

Cicero does this more than once. In addition to what you found in De oratore, we have ea ratio atque doctrina (also in De oratore) and ratio et doctrina praescripserit (in De natura deorum) indicating that Cicero does see ratio et doctrina as a single entity. This appears to be a case of hendiadys, using what is grammatically two entities for what is ...


8

Caledonii would be the tribes inhabiting Caledonia, the land. Think Americans and America. The word seems related to Celt, for what it's worth. Grammatically, the singular would be Caledonius, but oddly, I cannot find Classical usage for this. It seems merely a descriptive adjective for geography/features of the land of Caledonia (such as "Caledonian Ocean,"...


8

There are three commonly recognized types of nosism, in which the plural first-person pronoun is used rather than the singular: the pluralis societatis ("social plural"), pluralis modestiae ("plural of modesty"), and pluralis maiestatis ("plural of majesty" or "royal we"). In some sense all of these can be considered specialized uses of the poetic plural, ...


8

According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the first known usage of telos was in 1904, which is fairly recent, relatively speaking. The word doesn't appear in any old dictionaries before that time. Most modern dictionaries list teloi as the plural form and sometimes teloses as an alternative. Wiktionary was the only one that I saw that also showed tele as ...


8

The attested nom. sing. is either the Latinised cetus m., or the borrowed cetos n. In the plural only the borrowed cete n., nom./acc. is attested, but by analogy one would expect gen. *ceton and dat. *cetesi. Which does leave us at a loss for the ablative.


7

In addition to Nathaniel's excellent answer, we offer this quotation from Ennius: Liber VII Ennii de Naevio sententia: scripsere alii rem 231 Versibus quos olim Faunei vatesque canebant; Cum neque Musarum scopulos quisquam superarat Nec dicti studiosus erat, ante hunc Nos ausi reserare . . . . This appears to be ...


7

The development of the Latin 4th declension seems to be uncertain in several areas. The PIE ancestors of the G.sg. and the N.pl. of -u stems seem to have been *-ows and *-ewes respectively. The Latin forms seem to be contracted versions of these (although, as I said, the details are disputed). At any rate, palatalization does not seem to be a factor in ...


7

Telea (τέλεα) is a valid Greek plural (not contracted), and it looks better in English: the -a plural is not unusual for Greek (and Latin) borrowings, and the uncontracted -e- is similar to the related word teleology (not contracted * telulogy). An internet search reveals that this has already been used as a plural in English (a 2012 book, a 1986 Usenet ...


6

The classical word for "monad" is μονάς, plural μονάδες. μονάδα, plural -ες, is Modern Greek. μονάδαι looks like a pseudo-classical plural of the MG word. Where did you find it?


5

Pubes, genitive pubis means (as the dictionary tells us) "the signs of manhood, i.e. the hair which appears on the body at the age of puberty". It does not mean a single pubic hair, but - like the English word "hair" - it is a collective noun for the whole hairy covering of the body. That is why it stays in the singular even after a plural noun like montes.


5

This is a tricky thing to explain, but: Unus is the cardinal 'one', which has plural forms that are used with plural-form nouns such as castra and scopae. In such cases it is proper to write una castra or unae scopae. Singulus is used distributively — 'one for each', and so on — and is not to be confused with singularis, 'single' when an adjectival use is ...


5

Apparently an early usage was in inheritance law, in contrast with "per stirpes". Suppose A has children B and C, and B has child D, while C has children E and F. If A outlives his children but not his grandchildren, then with a per capita rule, D, E, and F each get 1/3 of the estate, but under a per stirpes rule, D gets 1/2 and E and F get 1/4 each. In ...


5

For whatever they might be worth, there are two inscriptions from Hadrian’s wall mentioning a centurion by the name of Caledonius Secundus, in both instances in the genitive singular. https://romaninscriptionsofbritain.org/inscriptions/1854 https://romaninscriptionsofbritain.org/inscriptions/1679


5

C. M. Weimer already treated the grammatical issues. However, in light of the fact that this question is tagged classical-latin, and that the author is specifically not looking for a purely religious term, I believe it bears pointing out that peccator does not appear to be a classically attested word. It was apparently used by Lactantius (around 250–320) and ...


4

It seems there are many theories, among them viri, virora, and virus. (The point of the article is that it's pointless to try to figure it out.) Here, however, is a refutation of the article linked above that contains an argument based on what seems to be solid linguistics ("seems" because it's been so long since I studied linguistics that I can't really ...


4

It does not really make sense to put "Alea iacta est" in the plural form. The reason for this is that alea does not exactly mean "one dice" or "one die" (as some resources claim), but it in original Latin, alea is the name for the "game of dice" or "set of dice". As a consequence, using the plural would mean something like "The sets of dice were thrown" ...


4

Allen & Greenough, New Latin grammar, states (§317, d): A collective noun commonly takes a verb in the singular; but the plural is often found with collective nouns when individuals are though of... The corresponding rule in Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin grammar, states (§211, Remark 1, a): Substantives of multitude often take the predicate in the ...


4

The singular forms of uterque mean either 'each x (out of 2),' which is also singular concept in English, or 'both xs,' which is a plural concept in English. The plural forms mean either 'each group of xs (out of 2 groups),' which is a singular concept in English, or 'both groups of xs,' which is also a plural concept in English. In the Tacitus passage that ...


4

Militiae is the genitive singular of militia, which is grammatically singular, but which (like other collective nouns) designates a plurality. Laudantium and dicentium are genitive plural. They agree with militiae ad sensum, but not ad litteram. It is like when you say in English “the whole class are doing their homework”. “Class” is grammatically singular, ...


4

Usually an adjective (and here meus works like an adjective) takes the form of the closest referent when used attributively. The masculine plural would be used in a sentence like "the wife and soul are mine". I find it better to put the adjective at the end, which would give you uxor animusque meus. If you don't want to use anima instead of animus (they ...


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