13

Good question! In the beginning, way back in the far-flung times of Proto-Indo-European, the word for "it is" was something like *h₁ésti, and it had a fairly regular present participle, *h₁sónts. In Latin, these forms evolved into est and sōns, respectively (vowels get lengthened before -ns). The latter is where we get forms like absēns > "absent" and ...


7

This is a deponent verb. Both the normal contemplare and the deponent contemplari exist and mean roughly the same thing. I have the impression that the deponent one is more common, but the details surely depend on the era and author. The deponent verb has passive forms but active meaning, and therefore the passive perfect participle has active meaning too. ...


5

In Latin, like in many languages, the usual present tense can be progressive. For example, "I am acting" would be simply ago. If you want to make a distinction between "I act" and "I am acting", you need to use other words to convey the nature of the action. Usually the context alone is enough, but you can add words like "suddenly" or "continuously". Latin ...


5

In my opinion, the answer to your question is no. Something like agens sum means "while acting, I am". In Latin, participles function a bit like subordinate micro-clauses. incensus irato, pura mente, ovem agens, sum => burning with anger, with a pure mind, leading a sheep, I exist / am. To be and a participle does not create a predicate as in ...


4

Militiae is the genitive singular of militia, which is grammatically singular, but which (like other collective nouns) designates a plurality. Laudantium and dicentium are genitive plural. They agree with militiae ad sensum, but not ad litteram. It is like when you say in English “the whole class are doing their homework”. “Class” is grammatically singular, ...


4

In medieval Latin there were neologisms such as ens. The link also says that the original form was sons with the classical meaning "guilty".


3

Punctuation and macrons might help: Respondēns autem Petrus dīxit, "Domine, sī tū es, iubē mē venīre ad tē super aquās." [29] At ipse ait, "Venī!" Et dēscendēns Petrus dē nāviculā ambulābat super aquam ut venīret ad Iēsum. [30] Vidēns vērō ventum validum timuit et cum coepisset mergī clāmāvit dīcēns, "Domine, salvum mē fac!" Answering, Peter said,...


3

Yes, the predicate of an ablative absolute can be a gerundive. But the matter is complicated by the question what a real ablative absolute is and what separates it from other constructions. You have specified your own, somewhat formal criteria. Others draw a distinction between the various functions of the ablative, the absolute being distinct from the ...


3

The verb veniunt doesn't work as directly with the gerundive (future passive participle) as you think. Omnia consideranda is "everything that must be considered", so it should be more along the lines of: [These] come before everything that must be considered. You can argue that the meaning is practically the same, but I think there is a meaningful ...


2

As pointed out by Joonas, it is VERY important to give the relevant/full quotes (at least, in these cases). Otherwise, the poster can receive contradictory feedback. For example, Joonas answered as Cicero would probably did. Indeed, in Classical Latin the only interpretation/analysis of the first example is the one given by Joonas. However, it is the case ...


2

In my interpretation, multitudo is accompanied by two discrete genitive constructions: the partitive genitive militiae caelestis (so, not the whole heavenly host but just much of it), and then a genitive indicating the contents of the multitude, the substantives laudantium and dicentium: a multitude of the heavenly host, consisting of beings who are praising ...


2

It is true that this may be considered an example of constructio ad sensum et non ad litteram. Nevertheless I prefer another perspective: if laudantium and dicentium are substantivized participles that indicate the composition of the militia, we could even translate as follows "...a large multitude of the heavenly militia of those who praised God..." ...


1

The common ending -bundus, similar meaning, (see Logeion entry for pudibundus, toggling the left-hand column switch to "Inverse") also suggests that De Vaan has it right, the suffix is just -undus.


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