11

When it comes to Latin, 'æ' is the same as 'ae', at least when in the diphthong. When the vowels are in different syllables, as in aer, then 'æ' is not used. You could see this so that 'ae' is such a commonly appearing combination that it is essentially a single letter. It makes thus sense to write the two letters as one, and it also has the benefit of ...


8

The Appendix Probi reveals errors of both types, i.e. of orthography and pronunciation. The sources for the content of the Appendix are written (as Barnett notes below), but, as such, they must be understood as reflecting habits of pronunciation. In the article “The ‘Appendix Probi’ as a Compendium of Popular Latin: Description and Bibliography”, the ...


5

The fairly obvious: Latin orthography is incapable of distinguishing /i/ from /j/, /jː/ (eius /ˈejːus/), and /ji/ (adicio /adˈjikioː/). These are phonemic distinctions: <i> between vowels is almost always /jː/, but it's /j/ in e.g. Gāius; <i> between a not-vowel (word boundary or consonant) and a vowel other than another <i> is almost ...


5

There's no distinction in Classical times. When the Greek alphabet was standardized by Euclid the Archon (around 400 BCE), the sounds of earlier /ej/ and earlier /eː/ (likewise /ow/, /oː/) had merged completely. Since they were pronounced the same, Eucleides decided to write them the same. From that point onward, there was no distinction in Greek writing of ...


3

Just to add to Brian's answer:The work in question is the treatise "de facultatibus partium animalium" by the famous medical writer Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (alias Rhazes; 10th century), here appended to the text of his medical encyclopaedia al-Kitāb al-Manṣūrī in the Latin translation by Gerald of Cremona (12th century). This is extant also in the Arabic original. ...


2

I just want to add one thing to the stuff that others have noted. The reason why Italia does not have a macron is that this word did not normally have a long vowel. It is scanned as if it were ītalia in verse (and therefore tends to be listed as ītalia in resources that derive quantity exclusively from versification), but this is a metrical convenience to ...


2

Not sure that all those variants "count", but to my understating there are six of them to the word clipeus: clipeus clypeus clipeum clypeum clupeus clupeum Those different variations had raised several speculations in the ancient's minds with respect to the meaning and/or etymology of those different terms - even to extant of self-contraction (...


1

This already exists. At http://alatius.com/macronizer you can tick the option "convert i into j" (as well as "u into v"). It works most of the time, but I don't know how. It probably checks a list of exceptions before it applies some general rules.


1

I leave it to experts on early Greek writing systems to describe the rise and fall of boustrophedon and RTL writing. Modern changes in writing systems suggest 3 possible reasons why they ceased to be used. The first is the influence of a dominant culture, as seen in the Chinese & Japanese use of LTR as well as vertical. The second is standardisation ...


1

Although it was mentioned in Lack's answer, I would to expand the discussion with respect to: Skoyles (1988) suggested that it was a compromise reflecting bilateral literacy: the left hemisphere read left-to-right lines and the right hemisphere read right-to-left lines. Actually this suggestion - in the broad sense - namely that language was, in the past, ...


1

Long sounds (vowels and consonants) […] a Roman wishing to differentiate vowels in his own language and having Aristophanes’ system as a model before him would surely have borrowed for his purpose the signs for long and short vowels, that is to say, the macron and breve, which, so far as we know, always had forms (¯ and ˘) that they have retained to the ...


1

Ī agrēe that learning the language with macrons is important. The mēaning often chānges depending on whether the vowel is short or long. In English wē have short and long vowels as well. It would benefit a foreigner tō knōw where the long vowels are. For instance: bōw vs bow bōw and arrow VS bow down prīmer vs primer ("primmer") prīmer, first cōat ...


1

I think your question has both Latin and typographical elements to it. You are correct in that Greek the letter sigma has two variants: ς, used only at the ends of words, and σ, used elsewhere which was then reflected in Latin cursive. In Old Latin cursive "the letter s was written as a vertical downstroke with a small curve at the end of it, and a ...


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