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20

The Latin ablative case represents a merger of three earlier Proto-Indo European (PIE) cases: the ablative (sometimes referred to as the 'from' case, because it was used to express ideas of source, separation, etc. – ideas where English often can use the preposition 'from'), the sociative-instrumental ('with' case), and the locative ('in'/'on' case). Of ...


17

Z is not originally a Latin letter! In fact, the letter we call Z wasn't Greek either, but rather had either an "sd" or "dz" sound (the jury is still out on which is correct, and there may have been regional variations). But with Latin, it's not just that no words started with Z, but that the letter itself is Greek. They borrowed the letter to represent the ...


15

This is a very abbreviated answer, which I will intend to expand on in the future (unless others get in there before me). The short answer is that the ablative didn't replace any earlier case - it dates back to at least late Proto-Indo-European (PIE), which developed a complex system of cases (including the ablative) best preserved (in general) in Sanskrit. ...


15

Z, allegedly, has a strange story. It was a Latin letter, then it became obsolete and was removed. It was then added back to accommodate words derived from Greek According to a few sources, one of them Dictionary.com, Z was actually included in the original Latin alphabet, which itself was a derivation of the Etruscan alphabet: A B G D E V Z H Θ I K L M ...


13

The gist of Au101's answer is confirmed by de Vaan's Etymological Dictionary. First, regarding sex, in Proto-Italic and Proto-Indo-European, he gives: PIt. *seks 'six', *seks-to- 'sixth' PIE *(s)ueks 'six', *uks-ó- 'sixth'. He notes: The PIt. form *seks has analogically dropped *-w- from *sweks by analogy with *septm 'seven'. Regarding sexus, there is ...


11

No, I don't think so, and for this I can actually rely on etymonline which is a fine resource, even if linguistics students are discouraged from using it for their homework. The entry for the English word 'six' is complete enough: Old English siex, six, sex, from Proto-Germanic *sekhs (source also of Old Saxon and Danish seks, Old Norse, Swedish, and Old ...


10

The usual explanation given in historical grammars, e.g. those of Weiss, Sihler, and Buck, is that the -er- stems result from regular sound change, while the -or- stems result from analogical remodeling on the basis of the nominative/accusative. A well-known Latin sound change turned all short vowels in word-medial open syllables to i. Since short ...


8

Weiss cites, besides alumnus, femina (from a root meaning 'give suck'), calumnia (derived from *kalwo-mno-, from the root of calvor 'deceive'), and possibly also columna and the divine name Vortumnus (if related to verto 'turn', though it may rather be Etruscan). These are not Greek loans but native formations; I don't know when precisely they were formed, ...


8

Francis Bacon is referencing previous "remembrances" The beginning of the epilogue to The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology, by Ernst Kantorowicz, references this quotation from Bacon and includes an explanation of their probable sources: Bacon's first "remembrance" should not be mistaken for the famous Camaldolite motto Memento ...


8

Rex Wallace argues that the letter z “remained part of the alphabetic series until the third century BCE even though it seems to have been used sparingly – if at all – in Very Old and Old Latin inscriptions” (Wallace 2011: 15). He also cites Colonna 1980, who reportedly mentions a late 7th century BCE graffito ZKA on a fragment of a ceramic. Interestingly, ...


8

The text is not a coherent passage of Latin but rather is derived from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" (The Extremes of Good and Evil) by Cicero, written in 45 BC. This website has both sections and their English translations: Sectie 1.10.32 van "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum", geschreven door Cicero in 45 v.Chr. "...


8

The phrase is actually slightly different: ambulatoria enim est voluntas defuncti usque ad vitae supremum exitum. This means: For the will of a dead man is changeable until his final departure from life. This comes from the Digest (or Pandects): The Digest, also known as the Pandects (Latin: Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from Ancient Greek ...


7

As varro says, the question is debated. There are no r-forms in Latin, and we have no 2pl. passives attested in Sabellic, unfortunately. I think Sihler's account is rather farfetched; a much simpler account, going back to Franz Bopp in 1820, is given by Weiss (Outline 391) as follows: The 2nd plural ending -minī most probably derives from a ...


7

The etymology of 'virgo' proposed by Ledo-Lemos, and rejected by Vaan (without further explanations), does not explain Lat. virgo as a compound from "*uiH-ro- (man) and *gʷén-eH₂- (woman)", but from *wir- 'young, youthful' (not 'man'!) and '*gʷén- 'woman'. According with this hypothesis, Lat. virgo originated as a compound whose original meaning was "young ...


7

Most likely not. According to de Vaan, there are two hypotheses on the etymology of virgo. virgo, -inis 'girl of marriageable age; virgin' [f. (m.) ri\ (Andr.-l·) Derivatives: virginalis 'of a girl of marriageable age' (PL+), virginarius 'concerned with girls of a marriageable age' (P1.+), virgineus 'of a girl; virgin' (Lucr.+). WH interpret virgo ...


6

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Ῥωμαϊκὴ Ἀρχαιολογία (Roman Antiquities) 1.90, explains that Latin was actually a dialect of Greek, corrupted by contact with European barbarians: Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ φωνὴν μὲν οὔτ᾿ ἄκρως βάρβαρον οὔτ᾿ ἀπηρτισμένως Ἑλλάδα φθέγγονται, μικτὴν δέ τινα ἐξ ἀμφοῖν, ἧς ἐστιν ἡ πλείων Αἰολίς, τοῦτο μόνον ἀπολαύσαντες ἐκ τῶν πολλῶν ἐπιμιξιῶν,...


6

It might be a type of metathesis: *undecem > *undicem > undecim. This is apparently irregular, but metathesis often is. I don't know for sure, but I was able to find a source that suggests this, although it indicates that we don't have any attestation of the pre-metathesis form *undicem: 12.1.11.1. In Latin 'eleven' to 'seventeen' are all indeclinable ...


6

Ave meaning 'hail' is the imperative of aveo, as you mention; when you hail someone you are instructing them to fare well (normally we would say you are wishing them to fare well), in much the same way that in English we can use 'farewell' to say goodbye. 'Hail' works the same way, except that the meaning 'be healthy' is very outdated now. Consequently, if ...


5

Sihler in his New Comparitive Grammar of Greek and Latin considers the problem "one the enigmas of classical scholarship", so I don't think there is any generally agreed-on answer. He does offer the following possibility (summarized): 1) Start with the PIE ending *-dhwo - but where does the nasal come from? 2) Perhaps *-dhwo-ne, with the same added ...


5

The most famous passage where Plato treats of this is in the Theaetetus, 155c-d, which is a dialog about the nature of knowledge. At one point, we have the following interchange between Socrates and Theaetetus: Θεαίτητος καὶ νὴ τοὺς θεούς γε, ὦ Σώκρατες, ὑπερφυῶς ὡς θαυμάζω τί ποτ᾽ ἐστὶ ταῦτα, καὶ ἐνίοτε ὡς ἀληθῶς βλέπων εἰς αὐτὰ σκοτοδινιῶ. ...


5

I'm going to take a shot in the dark and guess that you're using Whitaker's Words, since those look like Whitaker's origin codes. Each letter in the code indicates something about the word: in order, they're AGE, AREA, GEO, FREQ, and SOURCE. The first indicates how early or late the word is attested; the second indicates what general topic it's related to; ...


5

For one last answer, it seems another author has quoted a source no less Roman than Cato the Elder himself (though Cato's original doesn't survive): ὁ Ῥωμύλος, ἢ οἱ κατὰ αὐτόν, δείκνυται κατ' ἑκεῖνο καιροῦ τὴν Ἑλλάδα φωνήν, τὴν Αἱολίδα λέγω…Εὐάνδρου καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἀρκάδων εἰς Ἰταλίαν ἐλθόντων ποτὲ καὶ τὴν Αἱολίδα τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐνσπειράντων φωνήν. At that ...


5

It seems that some people have proposed that -menos developed in a few Latin words to -mens rather than -mnus, but there is no consensus in favor of this etymology. (And it certainly doesn't seem to have been productive.) At least one current Wiktionary entry gives an etymology based on this idea: the adjective clēmens, according to Wiktionary, comes "...


4

The etymologically expected form is -iens, but since the vowel preceding the ns was regularly lengthened, the pronunciation would be [ie:ns], in which the vowel was secondarily nasalized to [iẽ:ns]. This would naturally lead to sometimes omitting the [n] altogether, i.e. [iẽ:s]* (still probably phonemically /iens/), and possibly denasalized to [ie:s]**. ...


4

This is the most probable etymology of "Graf". It was borrowed from Byzantine Greek at about the time of Charlemagne. http://www.dwds.de/wb/Graf also this: http://forum.wordreference.com/threads/reeve-sheriff-en-vs-graf-grebe-graaf-greve-de-nds-nl-dk-sv.3016820/


4

This page ascribes the quote to the scholia on Aristophanes Clouds. The quote can be found here in Greek.


3

The graphs below are taken from "Borrowed Words, A History of Loanwords in English" by Philip Durkin (2014), as suggested by Alex B. Around 13,000 words out of 92,500 (the most frequent entries in the third edition of the OED, OED3) are derived only from Latin with around 2,000 which are from French and/or Latin (uncertain etymology). Interestingly, most ...


3

For yet another account, more pure-Roman than Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Quintilian (1.6) seems to agree that Latin is close to Aeolian: Etymologia, quae verborum originem inquirit, a Cicerone dicta est notatio, quia nomen eius apud Aristotelen invenitur "σύμβολον", quod est "nota". […] Continet autem in se multam eruditionem, sive ex ...


2

Latin had a word sex, but it didn't have the same meaning as in English. Instead, it's cognate with English "six", and means the same thing. English "sex" comes from Latin sexus, -ūs, which comes from a root sec- meaning "cut" (compare section, dissect, segment). The original meaning was "division", which shifted to "a way of dividing something in half", ...


2

Lucretius argued in Dē Rerum Nātūrā book 5 (lines 1041-1045) that language was innate; he had no explanation for why Greeks and Romans spoke differently. proinde putare aliquem tum nomina distribuisse rebus et inde homines didicisse vocabula prima, desiperest. nam cur hic posset cuncta notare vocibus et varios sonitus emittere linguae, tempore eodem alii ...


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