17

I believe this is one of many examples of Latin vowel reduction in word-internal syllables. The basic pattern is that short vowels in word-internal syllables were reduced: the resulting vowel in Classical Latin varies depending on the phonological context, and sometimes on the vowel. In inermis, the vowel is in a closed syllable, which is a context where a ...


10

What follows is not an answer but just some initial thoughts related to your question. My first impression/intuition is like the one you express at the end of your post. I'd be surprised to find examples that follow the specific schema you suggest (i.e., "non AA sed AA") in a classical author like Cicero. However, I must also say that I would be less ...


10

δοῦσα is a feminine nom. sg. participle, but it's more likely to be taken as the aorist participle of δίδωμι 'give' than the present participle of δέω 'bind': generally, monosyllabic stems (like δε-) don't contract. That said, there are exceptions, and it looks like δοῦσα is actually attested as an alternate of the regular form δέουσα. μή negates a ...


9

Officially, imprimo means I mark/stamp (hence English impression), where premo just means I press. The nuances of Latin prefixes have long fascinated me, and it took me forever to realize that they’re basically equivalent to English verbs that contain prepositions. So here it‘s a case of to press vs. to press in. Other examples are: rideo = I laugh; ...


7

All credit of this answer goes to sumelic. I just found further support for his hypothesis, of which I was not aware. This article states: Bader (1960: 236) remarks that words prefixed by privative in- (< *en- < *n-) and dis- frequently show vowel reduction (cf. Pultrová 2006: 73, 102-103), such as inimīcus 'unfriendly' (vs. amīcus 'friendly')...


6

One way you can do this is using the verb debeo, debere, debui, debitus, which not only means "to owe," but also "ought/should." It's relatively simple in its construction, so lets go through each scenario you gave using the verb amo for the thing you should be doing. You should love him So first, one puts debeo into the second person singular. Then, one ...


6

The negative prefix typically attaches to an adjective, while the prepositional prefix typically attaches to a verb. The distribution is complicated by the existence of adjectives derived from verbs (or at least, participle forms that look very similar to adjectives) and nouns derived from adjectives or from verbs. But if you're looking at a finite verb form ...


5

I don't think it's possible to distinguish in meaning "in" from PIE *en and in- meaning "not" from PIE *n̥ from pronunciation alone. It's well known that the /i/ in in- lengthens when followed by certain consonsant combinations such as "ns" and "nf", but as far as I know, that is purely phonetically determined and has nothing to do with the ancestral ...


5

In my experience many languages confuse lack of desire and desire of the contrary. For example, I would like to be able to say "I don't want coffee" as the negation of "I want coffee", meaning that I don't have a desire to have coffee. To say that I am actively against drinking coffee, I would prefer to say "I want not to have coffee". But, unfortunately, ...


5

The following examples are of the negated gerundive clearly equivalent to a prohibition. The pair faciendum / non faciendum is used to indicate positive and negative obligation, as evidenced by the parallelism with sequi / fugere. Videsne ut quibus summa est in voluptate perspicuum sit quid iis faciendum sit aut non faciendum? ut nemo dubitet eorum ...


5

To answer your question, one could choose to interpret it to have an unspoken clause, as per the comments to the first answer. There are indeed ways to express this in Latin: nē (…) quidem [–––] nōn mōdō expresses ‘not even [–––] much less’ or the likes. Examples: nē suēs quidem id velint, nōn mōdō ipse: not even swine would like that, no less he. This ...


4

Latin seems to be far less uniform in this than English. Unfortunately there is no single way to derive adjectives indicating a lack. Here are some possible ways: Someone without cura is securus, but the prefix se- is quite rare in this use. As Cerberus mentions, in- is more common, as in infamis has no fama. Someone without forma is deformis, and de- ...


4

It probably depends on the noun, but the normal negative/privative affix is in-, which is related to English un-, Greek a(n)- (the alpha privans), and all/most Indo-European negations with nasal sounds (Latin non, English no etc.). Then you add any of the semantically week adjectival suffixes such as -us, -osus, -is, -lis, etc. Examples: dolor - indolorosus/...


4

Three options spring to mind; no doubt there are others. Replace strenue with some adverb that's opposite in meaning, such as pigre, and then negate the result clause: tam pigre laborabam ut centum epistulas non scripserim. I worked with so little energy that I didn't manage to write 100 letters.' (Note that in result clauses, the perfect ...


4

There are three or four impersonal verbs to express what is appropriate, or legal, or obligatory. 1 děcet, it is appropriate 2 dēděcet, it is inapproptiate, unseemly. Ut nobis decet; As seems right to us. Oratorem irasci minime decet, simulare non dēděcet. It is not professional for an orator to get angry, it is not unprofessional to pretend (to get ...


3

In a comment, Alex B. referred to the 2001 Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine by Alfred Ernout and Antoine Meillet, which contains the following passage: Les grammairiens latins voyaient dans ignōscere un composé avec le préfixe privatif in-; cf. la glose ignoscere : non noscere, Loewe, Prodromus 409, et Thes. gloss. emend. s. u. ignōscō. Mais ...


3

There are two entirely unrelated prefixes in-: one is the negation; the other is simply like the preposition in meaning "in, on, into, onto, to". In this case, it looks like onto, since you're pressing on a surface. In practice, premo and imprimo often seem to be used interchangeably, but I'm sure there are some subtle differences.


2

This is not how Latin works. Use carēre + abl. if you need a verb, or vacuus/plenus + abl./gen. if you want to modify a noun: “itaque cum sumus necessariis negotiis curisque vacui...” (De Oficiis, I.13)


1

As for more recent scholarship on this topic, I recommend you to take a look at the following monograph by G. Haverling, who is THE expert on -sco verbs. HAVERLING, Gerd (2000). On sco-Verbs, Prefixes and Semantic Functions. A Study in the Development of Prefixed and Unprefixed Verbs from Early to Late Latin. Studia Graeca et Latina Gothoburgensia, 64. ...


1

What you are looking for is an adverb that means "not even," as "Do not even move!" Various words could fit this description, such as nec, necnon, or ne...quidem. Ne...quidem was the most common form of the three, so I would think that you would use that primarily. Quidem by itself is probably not a good idea, because it most likely was used in the context ...


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