27

Can they not be worked out from each other? No! That's the whole point for learning all of them. Why are each of these forms necessary for memorisation? That is the minimal amount of information to deduce how to use the noun. To be able to use a noun, you need to know all its forms and its gender. You cannot reliably deduce the gender from the forms, ...


19

From the Perseus Database, the frequency of the cases is as follows: Nouns (19630): accusative 31.6% ablative 25.8% nominative 22.6% genitive 13.6% dative 4.6% vocative 1.2% locative 0.2% unknown 0.4% Adjectives (7497): accusative 33.0% nominative 31.6% ablative 21.8% genitive 8.6% dative 4.2% vocative 0.6% locative 0.0% unknown 0.0% Pronouns (6289): ...


17

Joonas's answer is spot-on, but to give some more illustrations: Quite a lot of Latin nouns end in -us; it's one of the best-known features of the language. But they don't all decline the same! Servus "slave", genitive servī Tempus "time", genitive temporis Scelus "crime", genitive sceleris Manus "hand", genitive manūs You need the genitive to know which ...


12

According to this study, the distribution is as follows: 1st declension 21.6% 2nd declension 23.7% 3rd declension 52.6% 4th declension 1.4% 5th declension 0.7% ("Development of Gender Classifications: Modeling the Historical Change from Latin to French," by Maria Polinsky and Ezra Van Everbroeck Language Vol. 79, No. 2, Jun., 2003, Table 2, pg. 362)


12

I suspect that your friend misremembered the phrase. Concerning the actual phrase that Julius Caesar said, the biographers offer conflicting evidence. Suetonius tells us that Caesar died in silence, though he admits the tradition that Caesar said in Greek: "καὶ σὺ τέκνον;" Cassius Dio echoes Suetonius, claiming that the "truest account" ...


9

It should indeed be Brute, not Brutus, and the vocative form seems to be far more common if you make an internet search. The person who told that the last words came with Brutus appears to be slightly misinformed, perhaps due to knowing that the name is Brutus but being unaware of the Latin vocative case. The nominative Brutus would make sense if it was the ...


9

There are a handful of verbs that take -ς in the 2sg. aorist imperative: the others are δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵημι (δός, θές, ἕς). The origin of this -ς is a mystery.


9

There are agent nouns for all genders. For example, saltare gives rise to saltator, saltatrix, and saltatrum. For more details, see this question. The stem is revealed by the genitive form. For my three examples they are saltator- (third conjugation), saltatric- (third), and saltatr- (second). (The stem of rex is reg-, so it has a g instead of a c.) If you ...


9

The example that I'm familiar with is meretricula, found in, e.g., Plautus, Rudens 62-63: ipse hinc ilico conscendit navem, avehit meretriculas.


8

The Greek word for seven, hepta, like Sanskrit sapta, Latin septem, and others, points to an Indo-European *septm. In Greek *s becomes h, and the syllabic *m becomes a. In the word for “seventh”, IE *septm-o-, the m is a consonant (non-syllabic) and remains m in Greek, giving *heptmos, and then (with voicing of pt to bd before the voiced m) *hebdmos, and ...


7

The attested nom. sing. is either the Latinised cetus m., or the borrowed cetos n. In the plural only the borrowed cete n., nom./acc. is attested, but by analogy one would expect gen. *ceton and dat. *cetesi. Which does leave us at a loss for the ablative.


6

Are there any existing diminutives of agent (-tor/-trix) nouns? Yes, though the rarest. Examples for -trix have been already mentioned by @Joonas and @cnread: nutricula, meretricula... I'd like to add an example for an adjective derived from a -tor word: punctatoriola, as the diminutive of punctatorius from punctator: the reference is Festi Fragm. e Cod. ...


6

Welcome to the site! I'm afraid there isn't exactly one way to rule them all. But there are various phonological rules by which you can guess the roots of a significant number of verbs. For example, -(i)sk, -nu, and -an are common present suffixes, so cut them off if you want to find the root. The -an- suffix is in the present manthanô (root math-); -nu is ...


6

This is a sound change called rhotacism, one of the better-attested Latin sound changes. Back in Old Latin times, we see a phoneme /s/ showing up all over the place. For example, the stem for "flower" is flos-, which means its nominative is flos-s (which becomes flos), its genitive is flos-is, and its accusative is flos-em. And the infinitive is regularly ...


5

Greek verbs have six principal parts, meaning that to be able to conjugate a verb in all of its tenses, you need to know all six different roots with their conjugations. Sometimes the roots used in each principal part are identical (e.g. with λύω), sometimes similar (e.g. λείπω), and sometimes (as you already acknowledge) entirely different (e.g. λέγω). Here ...


5

The short answer would be no. Nōmen is a well-known example of a word that did not historically start with a velar consonant but that has a velar in some related prefixed words: agnōmen, cognōmen, ignōminia (but not in praenōmen or prōnōmen). This is thought to be the result of analogy. There seem to be certain words in Latin which start with an ...


5

These terms are presumably intended to refer either to all aorist passives and future passives, or possibly to just the ones with a theta, a.k.a. "first aorist passives" and "first future passives". Most verbs form their aorist passive and future passive with -θη-, e.g. ἐλύθην, λυθήσομαι. But some form them with just -η-, e.g. ἐφάνην, φανήσομαι. The ...


4

Yes, that is correct. The only tenses/stems that can get θη are the aorist passive and the future passive: the others have passive meaning expressed by the middle voice (this being Greek, there will always be exceptions and idiosyncrasies, but the above is standard).


4

After talking to another classicist, I can offer some thoughts, though sadly without definitive sources. It seems unlikely that the two are related, for various reasons: Contracted perfects are extremely rare with the syncopated ending: amārunt and amāvere are both possible for the third person plural perfect, but *amāre generally isn't. Historically, the ...


3

Difficult to verify this research but, according to this Reddit thread, the distribution over An Elementary Latin Dictionary (Lewis) would be: 1st declension 19.14% (1248) 2nd declension 31.28% (2039) 3rd declension 45.93% (2994) 4th declension 3.59% (234) 5th declension 0.06% (4)


3

Fuerit is the perfect subjunctive of esse, you can look up such forms in a conjugation table like this. Part of learning Latin is guessing what form of what verb you might be looking at, and then confirming your guess in the dictionary if you do not know the verb by heart. This is a nice thing about printed dictionaries: Even if you do not find corrupi…, you ...


2

Possible examples: carcero, carcerare. Lewis and Short has an entry defining it as follows: to imprison, incarcerate (post-class.), Salv. Prov. 2, p. 53; Auct. Prog. Aug. 29. Pretty clearly based on the location noun carcer, and the entry seems to clearly define it as a location verb. I haven't examined the citations. corono, coronare. Lewis and Short ...


2

Just to add on to Alex B's answer, though I can't offer as authoritative of sources: Would it be appropriate to occasionally make the replacement in any context? In the late Republican period, the answer seems to be yes, but it sounds a bit archaic. I'd compare it to putting the object before the verb in English ("speaking with the object the verb ...


2

This rule applies to Russian, Germanic languages, Latin and ancient Greek as far as I know. So I suspect that it's a feature of the proto-IE language.


1

My copy of Stelten's Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin gives cetion for the genitive plural. Nothing about the ablative, or even dative, though.


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