All three of those adjectives are used of persons in classical Latin, in both prose and poetry. (In my own reading, though, I'm accustomed to seeing altus and procerus much more often in this context than longus.)
(Definitions and attestations are from Oxford Latin Dictionary.)
1 Having great extension upwards, lofty, tall
... (of persons or ...
For the construction of a phrase it is good praxis to look at what classical authors (especially Cicero) did. I haven't found a comparative use of the adjective procerus. However, the phrase "to be taller" could be expressed with altitudine superare (see, for instance, Liv. 30,10,13: altitudine aliquantum onerariae superabant and 43,19,9: [Perseus] ...
You need to say taller not 'by a head', but 'by a neck'.
Ovid, Met. 3.181: . . . collo tenus supereminet omnes
Ovid has the same expression collo tenus in Met. 2.275, where the adjacent text is doubtful, but the meaning clearly the same.