15

Although it's possible that the verb est has been omitted here, as Adam says, I find it more likely that the sentence really is equivalent to Iūlius nōn sōlus habitat, sed cum Aemiliā et cum magnā familiā in vīllā habitat. Latin regulary uses adjectives in the nominative modifying the subject (and also in the accusative modifying the direct object) where ...


12

Egressi Trojani is in the nominative because it's the subject of agerent. The structure of the sentence is a bit unusual, but it's clearer when you move the cum to its vanilla position before the egressi Trojani, since the whole thing is a subordinate cum causalis: Ibi, [cum egressi Trojani, quibus ab immenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et naves ...


11

Here is one way to make sense of this: Think of esse as "to be" and abesse as "to be away". Then non procul est is "he is not far" and non procul abest is "he is not far away". The unprefixed version non procul est makes a statement about the location only, and the prefix ab- adds a tone of being away, out of reach, ...


11

You are correct, this is a passive infinitive: "to be counted". The passive versions of amāre, habēre, currere, and audīre are amārī, habērī, currī, and audīrī.


10

Graecus, -a, -um is an adjective “Greek”, put in the ablative plural Graecis to agree with the ablative plural noun oppidis: “In (the) Greek towns.” Italia is a noun “Italy”; Italiae is the genitive singular: “In (the) gardens of Italy.” Genitive nouns don’t show any agreement in Latin, so only hortis is marked for ablative plural. The same goes for “In ...


10

The i in videt is short. The length of a vowel in classical Latin pronunciation is defined by its duration—its "quantity"—as opposed to its "quality", i.e. the nature of the sound: its waveform or timbre. But first let's have a look at short-vowel quality, since that seems to be the focus of your question. Then we'll come back to rhythm ...


9

According to Döderlein's Hand-book of Latin Synonymes (also here), canere is the more general term for music (and thus may be used for singing), whereas cantare usually is used more specifically to refer to vocal music: Canere (from καναχεῖν) means, in the most general sense, to make music, voce, tibiis, fidibus, like μέλπειν; cantare, with vocal music, ...


7

This is indeed the conjunction cum "when" (from Old Latin quom), separate from the preposition cum "with" (from Old Latin com). I'm not quite sure why the verbs are passive EDIT: d_e in the comments has pointed out that moveō is generally transitive, so for a sort of "middle voice" meaning, the passive makes sense: When a bird ...


7

It's ablative. There's no preposition because this is the instrumental use of the ablative. @TKR helped me out with this long ago when he pointed out that you would not say cum to indicate using the teeth to attack. This meaning is indicated by the plain ablative with no preposition (with a non-human noun). I'm glad I'm not the only one who finds the dative-...


7

It's an ablativus instrumentalis, or an instrumental ablative, and specifically an ablative of means. No preposition necessary or even permitted.


7

Remember that intrō takes an accusative, and per also takes an accusative. Since there are multiple accusatives next to each other, by default, I'd assign each one to the nearest "accusative-taker": Is quī viā Latīnā venit [per portam Capēnam] [Rōmam intrat]. He who comes from the Via Latina [enters Rome] [through the Porta Capena]. And indeed, ...


7

Actually, this is not so much a case of missing esse, but of praedicative use of an adjectival word. Adjectives (solus), but also participles, can be used such that they agree with a nominal group (Iulius), while telling you something about the praedicate as a whole (Iulius non [habitat]), not just about the nominal group. This is also possible in other Indo-...


6

There are no long vowels in videt, pater, vocat in classical Latin. The vowel in the first syllable of vīlla is long. For sources like Ørberg, the general rule is very simple: macrons mark long vowels, all vowels without macrons are to be understood as short. There are occasional uncertainties or potential errors in Ørberg's use of macrons, but all of the ...


4

It should be the active form. The subject of the subordinate clause is the master and the object (se) is the slave. Some verbs can have a deponent variant, and for a deponent verb you should use a passive form. The entry in L&S makes no mention of a deponent variant verberari. The reflexive se is inherently ambiguous in a subordinate clause like that. It ...


4

It's an ablative of means: with the teeth. wolf attacks neck of sheep with teeth


3

Welcome to the community! Est can be ommitted if the meaning is clear. You might want to check out this post about omitting esse, as it's another form of the same verb. In the case of this sentence, it's very clear that the verb is est from both the clause and with the full sentence.


2

I just want to add one thing to the stuff that others have noted. The reason why Italia does not have a macron is that this word did not normally have a long vowel. It is scanned as if it were ītalia in verse (and therefore tends to be listed as ītalia in resources that derive quantity exclusively from versification), but this is a metrical convenience to ...


1

In proverbs and sentences, the verb sum is often omitted both as a copula and as a verbal predicate. Font: years of latin in italian schools. Ps: when citing a verb it should be named in indicative present first person singular because that's where we study the root of the verb. and from there we study the endings and irregular verbs. It's a Englishism to ...


1

Long sounds (vowels and consonants) […] a Roman wishing to differentiate vowels in his own language and having Aristophanes’ system as a model before him would surely have borrowed for his purpose the signs for long and short vowels, that is to say, the macron and breve, which, so far as we know, always had forms (¯ and ˘) that they have retained to the ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible