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16

According to the Handbook of Medieval Culture (Albrecht Classen, vol. 2): The first written evidence considered to be Italian rather than Latin is known as the Placiti Cassinesi, which are four legal documents containing vernacular testimonies in an Upper Southern dialect dated to 960–963. The text of the four placiti has been published in Storia ...


16

Professor Martin Maiden (Professor of the Romance Languages, Fellow of Trinity College) writes that "The overwhelming majority of modern nouns and adjectives [in Italian - Alex B.] appear to derive from Latin accusative forms" (Martin 1995: 98; italics not mine). for more details we need to read his 1996 paper, On the Romance inflectional endings ...


13

Saying that Italian noun and adjective forms are derived from Latin accusative forms is a simplification. The nominative is also a source in some cases, such as for the singular form of the noun uomo. In other cases, neither the Classical Latin nominative nor the Classical Latin accusative seems to be sufficient to explain the form of an Italian word (...


12

This page (in Italian) has three bilingual Italian-Latin poems. "Salve Regina" by Anacleto Bendazzi (1883-1982) seems to be the Christian-themed one (though I don't know either Italian or Latin well enough to translate it myself): Salve Regina ! Te saluto, o pia, nostra tutela in tenebrosa via, in sinistra terrifica procella benigna stella. ...


11

I generally trust Etymonline more than Wiktionary: musical direction, "moderately slow," 1742, from Italian andante, literally "walking," present participle of andare "to go," from Vulgar Latin ambitare (source of Spanish andar "to go"), from Latin ambitus, past participle of ambire "to go round, go about," from amb- "around" (see ambi-) + ire "go" (see ...


10

You can listen to the whole chorus being sung in Latin here (be sure to enable Latin subtitles). The performer is Roland Kadan, an Austrian Latin teacher who has published a whole Latin songbook. He translates the first sentence thus: Vade, mens, mota aureis alis … which is as good a translation as any. The mota is not really necessary and not found in the ...


10

The Egyptian god Harpocrates was typically depicted as a boy with his finger held to his lips. Example here. He makes a few appearances in classical literature, such as Ovid, Metamorphoses 9.692: inerant lunaria fronti cornua cum spicis nitido flaventibus auro et regale decus; cum qua latrator Anubis, sanctaque Bubastis, variusque coloribus Apis, ...


10

I found a non-classical reference to this gesture in the Metamorphoses (or Golden Ass) of Apuleius (AD 124-170): At ille, digitum a pollice proximum ori suo admovens et in stuporem attonitus, ‘Tace, tace,’ inquit, et circumspiciens tutamenta sermonis, ‘Parce’ inquit, 'In feminam divinam, ne quam tibi lingua intemperante noxam contrahas.' (I.8)


9

Ostler (see my comment on Luc's answer) remarks, in relation to the appearance of a language that is recognisably Italian: " . . . touchingly, the first surviving example of imperfect written Latin — if not yet conscious Italian — is an elegant riddle apparently used when trying out a new pen: 'se pareba boues / alba pratalia araba / & alba versorio ...


8

It is generally assumed, based on graphic data (including misspellings), that palatalization in Latin was operational as early as the second century AD (e.g. Maiden 1995, Repetti 2016, Weiss 2009/2011, among many, many others). Clackson and Horrocks 2007/2011 add that it became general by the fifth century AD (p. 274). Of course, it didn't happen overnight, ...


7

https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forum_Sancti_Petri_(Roma) with references, believe it or not.


7

I might be a little late, but I think I still have something to add, based on what I see in the other answers. Before the XX century, there was no single Ecclesiastical pronunciation of Latin, but rather a bunch of local traditions, some of which still survive (cf. Batavulus' answer). When we talk about Ecclesiastical pronunciation, we usually refer to the ...


6

As far as I can tell, "Ecclesiastical Latin" does not in fact seem to exist as a single defined standard. (I don't know whether it ever did.) There seems to be vagueness or uncertainty about a number of distinctions that are not present in a consistent form across varieties of Italian, such as the use of mid-open vowels [ɛ ɔ] versus mid-close ...


6

The Wiktionary article on Italian volere says that, as the infinitive suggests, the verb was moved to the second conjugation in Vulgar Latin, so it traces it to a "Vulgar Latin *volēre". The -gli- in voglio would come from -le- before a vowel (through steps something like [le] > [lj] > [ʎː]), as in Italian paglia from Latin palea. I don't see any indication ...


5

For playing a musical instrument, Latin uses ludere. See II. under Lewis and Short: II. Trop. A. To sport, play with any thing, to practise as a pastime, amuse one's self with anything: “illa ipsa ludens conjeci in communes locos, Cic. Par. prooem.: Prima Syracosio dignata est ludere versu Nostra ... Thalia,” Verg. E. 6, 1.—Esp., to play on an ...


4

The most probable theory is that andare comes from Latin ambulare, probably through the military command ambulate “forwards!”, whence Italian andate and also French allez. http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/aller


4

You're right that such gemination is not correct Classical pronunciation, and I believe the answer to your question whether it occurred in post-Classical Latin/Romance is no. Italian amata does not, at least in standard pronunciation, have a geminate; phonetically it's [ama:ta], versus e.g. matta [mat:a] with a geminate t. To the best of my knowledge, there ...


4

volō can indeed mean either “I want” or “I fly”, but the other forms of the two words are different (e.g. infinitive velle vs volāre), so they were definitely perceived as different words and this difference is expanded in Romance. Like Italian, French also has vouloir < *volēre and voler < volāre. The infinitive *volēre is not attested as such, but it ...


3

The word pistatio already exists; OLD defines it as 'the action of ramming down,' which sounds quite unappetizing. In the entry for pistare that is linked to in the question, the attestation provides one possibility: herba pistata. Alternatively, while researching a comment and an answer for another food-related question, I came across this passage from ...


3

Going off of the king of infallible sources, Wikipedia, Other major forums are found in Italy; however, they are not to be confused with the piazza of the modern town, which may have originated from a number of different types of ancient civic centers, or more likely was its own type. While similar in use and function to forums, most were created in the ...


3

I don't know exactly why you have heard pronunciations of Italian amata with a long /tː/, but I would guess this is just a case of different speakers using different phonetic durations for phonemically singleton consonants. The exact realization of gemination is not the same in all languages/language varieties, so some Italian speakers may use something that ...


3

According to Alkire and Rosen (Romance Languages: a Historical Introduction), a perfective construction with habeō wasn't uncommon in Classical Latin: Caput cinctum habēbant filō. They had their heads encircled with cord. (Varro 5.15, first century BCE, translation mine.) Over time, this got extended to intransitive verbs. In other words, habeō became ...


3

In my mind, the term “Ecclesiastical Latin“ (which as far as I can tell is especially widespread in the US) is highly problematic. It's not a dialect, as Latin texts traditionally used in the liturgy come from a wide variety of sources and periods. It is often used (apparently) to refer to the ”Italianate“ pronunciation of Latin, but to call that “...


3

To answer one half of your question, I believe that the modern Italian pronounciation of words that are consciously Latin words is almost identical to the Ecclesiastical Latin. To answer the other, more practical half of your question, no, I do not think that Google Cloud's Italian voice synthesis accurately matches this pronounciation. This is most notable ...


2

from Du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis, Niort: L. Favre, 1883–1887 (10 vol.). searchable full-text online edition, by the École nationale des chartes: http://ducange.enc.sorbonne.fr/GROSSUS1#GROSSUS1-5 Zingarelli 2021 gives 1657 as the earliest recorded attestation in Italian (no more information provided), cf. for French it is 1566,...


1

The Italian ecclesiastical pronunciation of "ev" is simply /ev/ (e. g. here). The same goes for the French pronunciation of ecclesiastical Latin (only the ending changes: /ɔm/). Addendum Wikipédia provides a summary of all Latin pronunciations here.


1

Some examples from the Vulgate: 2 Kings 3:15 nunc autem adducite mihi psalten cumque caneret psaltes facta est super eum manus Domini et ait But now bring me a minstrel. And it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him. (In modern Welsh, the word "canu" means "to sing", but it is also used to say playing an ...


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